Harvard University - Top 1 universities in the world

Harvard University is a university research and private, member of the Ivy League , in Cambridge, Massachusetts , United States

Yale University - Top 3 universities in the world

Yale University is a private university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 in Connecticut...

University of Cambridge - Top 2 universities in the world

University of Cambridge a university public research complexes in Cambridge , England.

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Showing posts with label Top-most-famous-university-world. Show all posts

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

McGill University - Montreal , Quebec , Canada

McGill University is a public university located in Montreal , Quebec , Canada . The school was established in 1821 under the royal charter issued by King Geogre IV . The school is named after James McGill, a Scottish businessman from Montreal, who conquered in 1813 and founded McGill College, the precursor of the school.

Location: Montreal , Quebec , Canada
Website: mcgill .ca

McGill University - Montreal , Quebec , Canada


The main campus of McGill is located in Mount Royal in downtown Montreal with the second campus is located in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue , is also located on the Island of Montreal, from the main campus 30 kilometers (18 miles) West. The University is one of only two members of the Association of North American Universities outside of the United States, and the sole representative of Canada to attend the Global Leadership Forum (GULF). The framework of the World Economic Forum , when only 26 leading universities are participating in the forum.

McGill offers degrees and degrees in more than 300 research areas, with the highest average admissions requirements compared to any other Canadian university. Most of the students enrolled in the largest department, Arts , Science , Pharmacy , Engineering , and Management, respectively .

Among the participants were trained at McGill, has 12 Nobel Laureates and 144 scholarships Rhodes Scholars , both reached the highest number compared to universities in Canada, also There were five people chosen to be astronauts, three Canadian Prime Ministers , the current Governor-General of Canada , 14 judges of the Supreme Court of Canada , four foreign leaders , 28 foreign ambassadors , 9 who won an Oscar , won 11 Grammys , three winners Pulitzer , and 28 medalists at the Olympics , counting different countries. In the history of development, alumni McGill has contributed to the founding or first organized sport of rugby USA , basketball , and ice hockey . McGill University or its alumni have also established a number of major colleges and universities, including British Columbia , Victoria and Alberta Colleges , School of Medicine & Dentistry Schulich , Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Dawson College .

History 


The Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning (RIAL) was established in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of the Canadian House of Commons , an Act for the Establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning at this province .

In 1816 RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal. This was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and even the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools. When James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.

Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal . By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the School Board of Directors and continued to operate until 1870. Thereafter, its sole purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college. The RIAL continues to exist today; is the corporate identity that runs the university and its various constituent bodies, including the former Macdonald College (now Macdonald Campus), theMontreal Neurological Institute , and the Royal Victoria College (formerly known as college residence). Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University.

McGill College 

James McGill , born in Glasgow , Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756.  Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate ", a 19 hectare (47 acres) tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.

On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 as an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada , added the establishment of a University under the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of elementary education in Lower Canada .

As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds were to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have been established within 10 years of his death; otherwise the bequest would revert to the heirs of his wife.

On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV . The Charter provided that the College should be considered and taken as a University , with the power of conferring degrees .

University development 

Campus expansions 

The Arts Building, completed in 1843 and designed by John Ostell , is the oldest building on campus.
Though McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, which had been founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school. The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, and the Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833; this was also the first medical degree to be awarded in Canada.

The Faculty of Medicine remained the only faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and the East Wing (Dawson Hall). The university also historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards , and the military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is marked upon the stone that stands before the Arts building, from where the Guards stepped off annually to commemorate Remembrance Day.

The Faculty of Law was founded in 1848 which is also the oldest of its kind in the nation. 48 years later, the school of architecture at McGill University was founded.

Sir John William Dawson , McGill's principal from 1855 to 1893, is often credited with transforming the school into a modern university. He recruited the aid of Montreal's wealthiest Citizens (eighty percent of Canada's wealth was then controlled by families who lived trong Golden Square Mile area có surrounded the university), many of Whom donated property and Funding needed to construct the campus buildings. Their names adorn many of the campus's prominent buildings.

William Spier designed the addition of the West Wing of the Arts Building for William Molson, 1861. Alexander Francis Dunlop designed major alterations to the East Wing of McGill College (now called the Arts Building, McGill University). Bovey and the Science Dept., 1888. This expansion of the campus continued until 1920. Buildings designed by Andrew Taylor , include the Redpath Museum (1880), the Macdonald Physics Building (1893), the Redpath Library (1893), the Macdonald Chemistry Building (1896), the Macdonald Engineering Building (1907) - known as the Macdonald-Stewart Library Building, and the Strathcona Medical Building (1907) - was renamed the Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry Building.

In 1900, the university established the MacLennan Traveling Library. McGill University Waltz, composed by Frances C. Robinson, was published in Montréal by WH Scroggie, c. 1904.

In 1885, the university's Board of Governors formally adopted the name of "McGill University". In 1905, the university acquired a second campus when Sir William C. Macdonald , one of the university's major benefactors, endowed a college in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, 32 miles west of Montreal. Macdonald College, now known as the Macdonald Campus , opened to students in 1907, originally offering programs in agriculture, household science, and teaching.

George Allan Ross designed the Pathology Building, 1922-23; the Neurological Institute, 1933; Neurological Institute addition 1938 at McGill University. Jean Julien Perrault (architect) designed the McTavish Street residence for Charles E. Gravel, which is now called David Thompson House (1934).

Women's education

Women's education at McGill began in 1884, when Donald Smith (later Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal ), began funding separate lectures for women, given by the university staff members. The first degrees to women at McGill Granted were conferred in 1888. [40] In 1899, the Royal Victoria College (RVC) opened as a residential college for women at McGill with Hilda D. Oakeley as the head. Until the 1970s, all female undergraduate students, known as "Donaldas," were considered to be members of RVC. [41] Beginning in the autumn of 2010, the new Tower section of Royal Victoria College is a co-eddormitory, whereas the older West Wing remains strictly for women. Both the Tower and the West Wing of the Royal Victoria College form part of the university's residence system.

McGill in the Great War

This photo was taken at McGill University in Montreal in 1915 before the departure of the 2nd University Company for France. The Company reinforced the Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry on the Somme in October 1915

Stained Glass Great War Memorial entrance to the Blackader-Lauterman Library of Architecture and Art

McGill University played a significant role in the Great War. Many students and alumni enlisted in the first wave of patriotic fervor that swept the nation in 1914, after the first wave of heavy Canadian casualties at Ypres - Hamilton Gault, the founder of the Canadian regiment and a wealthy Montreal businessman, was faced with a desperate shortage of troops. Whenever he reached out to his friends at home for support, over two hundred were commissioned from the ranks, and many would serve as soldiers throughout the war. On their return to Canada after the war, Major George McDonald and Major George Currie formed the accounting firm of McDonald Currie, which later became one of the founders of Price Waterhouse Coopers . Captain Percival Molsonwas killed in action in July 1917. Percival Molson Memorial Stadium at McGill is named in his honor.

The War Memorial Hall (more commonly known as Memorial Hall) is a landmark building on the campus of McGill University. At the dedication ceremony of the Governor General of Canada ( Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis ) laid the cornerstone. Dedicated on October 6, 1946, the Memorial Hall and the Adjoining Memorial Pool honors students who had enlisted and died in the First World War , and in the Second World War . In Memorial Hall, there are two Stained Glass Regimental badge World War I and World War II Memorial by Charles William Kelsey c. 1950/1.

A war memorial window (1950) by Charles William Kelsey in the McGill War Memorial Hall depicts the figure of St. George. Michael and the badges of the Navy, Army and the Air Force. A Great War memorial window featuring Saint George and a slain dragon at the entrance to the Blackader-Lauterman Library of Architecture and Art is dedicated to the memory of the 23 members of the McGill Chapter of Delta Upsilon who gave their lives in the Great War. Six other windows (1951) by Charles William Kelsey on the west wall of the memorial hall depict the coats of arms of the regiments in which the McGill alumni were members.

There is a memorial archway at Macdonald College , two additional floors added to the existing Sir Arthur Currie Gymnasium, and a hockey rink and funding for an annual Memorial Assembly. A book of remembrance on a table marble contains the names of those who lost in both World Wars. On 11 November 2012 the McGill Remembers web site launched; the University War Records Office collected documents between 1940-1946 related to McGill students, staff and faculty in the Second World War.

Quotas on Jewish students 

Beginning in the 1920s, and continuing until the 1960s, McGill imposed a controversial quota which stated a maximum of the proportion of newly admitted students who were Jewish. Up until that point Jews were overrepresented in the university, especially in the arts (20% Jewish) and law (40% Jewish). The Jewish population across McGill is at 10%.

McGill was instrumental in founding several major universities and colleges. It established the first post-secondary institutions in British Columbia to provide degree programs to the growing cities of Vancouver and Victoria . It chartered Victoria College in 1903 as an affiliated junior college of McGill, offering first and second-year courses in arts and sciences, until it became the current University of Victoria . British Columbia's first university was incorporated in Vancouver in 1908 as the McGill University College of British Columbia . The private institution granted the degree to McGill until it became the independent University of British Columbia in 1915.

Dawson College began in 1945 as a satellite campus of McGill to absorb the anticipated influx of students after World War II . Many students in their first 3 years in the Faculty of Engineering took courses at Dawson College to relieve the McGill campus for the two years later for their degree course. Dawson eventually became independent of McGill and evolved into the first English CEGEP in Quebec . Another CEGEP, John Abbott College , was established in 1971 at the McGill's Macdonald College campus.

Both founders of the University of Alberta , Prime Minister Alexander Cameron Rutherford of Alberta and Henry Marshall Tory , were also McGill alumni. In addition, McGill alumni and professors, Sir William Osler and Howard Atwood Kelly , were among the four founders and early faculty members of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine . Osler became the first physician-in-chief of the new Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore , Maryland, in 1889. He led the creation of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1893. Other McGill alumni founded theSchulich School of Medicine & Dentistry in the 1880s.

Readmore: Top most famous university in the world

Friday, June 15, 2018

California Institute of Technology - Pasadena, California , USA

California Institute of Technology is a university study in private Pasadena, California , USA. Caltech has six member units, focusing on the sciences and engineering . The main campus is 50 hectares , located about 18 kilometers southeast of downtown Los Angeles .

Website: caltech.edu

Initially founded by Amos G. Throop as a preparatory and vocational school in 1891, this school attracted early twentieth-century scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes , and Robert Andrews Millikan. . The college preparatory and vocational education system was abolished in 1910 and the school dates back to 1921. In 1934, Caltech was admitted to the Association of North American Universities . The base precursor of Jet Propulsion Laboratory of NASA latter was established in 1936 to approximately 1943; Caltech continues to operate and operate this laboratory. Caltech is one of a small group of technology institutesIn the United States, there is a tendency to focus primarily on engineering and applied sciences.

California Institute of Technology - Pasadena, California , USA


Despite its small size, 31 alumni and 32 faculty members received 32 Nobel Prizes ( Linus Pauling received two) and 66 received the National Medal of Science or the National Medal of Technology and Innovation. The United States, 112 faculty members are academicians of the National Academies. Caltech management of $ 332 million in research funding in 2011 and received 1.75 billion dollars donation in 2012. Caltech is also a longtime competitor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology . In 2012-2013, Caltech ranks first in the world in Times Higher Education 's university rankings

History 


University Throop 

Initially, Caltech was a vocational school founded in 1891 by Amos G. Throop, a politician and businessman, at Pasadena. The school was later known as Throop University ), Polytechnic Institute Throop ( Throop Polytechnic Institute and Manual Training school), and the University of technology Throop ( Throop College of technology ), before being changed to the name California Institute of technology (Caltech) in 1920 . the school initial vocational training program was disbanded and university preparation was separated to establish Polytechnic (Polytechnic school) independence in 1907.

At a time when scientific research in the United States was just beginning, George Ellery Hale, an astronomer from the University of Chicago , founded the Mount Wilson Astronomical Observatory in 1904. Throop's management in 1907, and began immediately to develop this facility and the entire Pasadena region into an important cultural and scientific site. He helped bring James AB Scherer, a literary scholar with no expertise in the field of science but as a competent administrator and an effective fundraiser, to the post of director of the Throop in 1908. Scherer persuaded Charles W. Gates, a retired board member and businessman, to donate $ 25,000 to build Gates Research Lab, the first scientific building on campus.

World Wars  II

In 1910, Throop moved to the present site, a land donated by Arther Fleming. Theodore Roosevelt delivered a speech at the Throop Polytechnic on March 21, 1911, in which he stated, "I would like to see establishments like Throop train 100 students, 99 of whom work in industrial jobs. I would like to see these students doing what they are doing in the Panama Canal and in the great irrigation works in the country - and the rest of the students I would like to see the kind of scientific culture that will make him and his men create a generation that sometimes produces a man like your great astronomer, George Ellery Hale. "

That same year, a bill passed at the California Legislature called for the creation of a "California Institute of Technology" funded by public funds, with an initial budget of one million dollars, 10 times the budget of Throop at that time. The Board of Trustees recommended the delivery of Throop to the state, but the directors of Stanford University and the University of California , through lobbies, had overturned the bill, so Throop developed as a hospital. the only science-oriented education in southern California, including public and private, until the start of World War II when it was necessary to expand research-based education. Throop's prospects drew the physicistArthur Amos Noyes from MIT develops this facility and assists in turning it into a science and technology center.

With the outbreak of World War I , Hale founded the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific research to solve military maths. Although Hale supported the notion that the federal government provided money for scientific research, he did not follow the use of a federal bill that could help finance university research. Instead, he sought to raise a million dollars for a national research fund from private sources.

Through the National Research Council, Hale campaigned for science to play a greater role in national affairs, and at the same time let Throop play a national role in science. New grants were given to physics research, which led to the creation of the Norman Bridge Laboratory, which attracted experimental physicist Robert Andrews Millikan from the University of Chicago in 1917. During World War I , Hale, Noyes and Millikan worked together in Washington DC on the National Research Council. They then continued to collaborate on the development of Caltech.

Under the leadership of Hale, Noyes and Millikan (with the backing of a vibrant Southern California economy ), Caltech gained national fame in the 1920s. On 29 March In 1921, the board members stated that Caltech's policy was to pursue scientific studies of special importance and at the same time "continue to have carefully designed and taught courses. in the field of engineering and science based on fundamental sciences including mathematics, physics, and chemistry, expanding and enriching the curriculum.with plenty of teaching time in subjects such as English language and literature, history, and economics; and empower all those activities with strong research spirit. "

In 1923, Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. In 1925, Caltech establish geology and recruit William Bennett Munro, then the chief department of History, State Administration and Economics at the University of Harvard , to help create the faculty of humanities and science social studies at Caltech. In 1928, a biology department was established under the leadership of Thomas Hunt Morgan, the most famous American biologist at the time and the discoverer of the role of genes and chromosomes in genetics. In 1930, the Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory was established in Corona del Mar under the supervision of Professor George MacGinitie. In 1926,The aeronautics college was founded, which attracted Theodore von Kármán . Kármán later founded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and played an important role in making Caltech one of the world's missile science centers. In 1928, the Palomar Observatory began to be built.

Millikan worked as the "Chairman of the Board" (acting as director of Caltech) from 1921 to 1945. His influence was so great that sometimes Caltech was referred to as "The School of Millikan. " The day after joining Caltech, Millikan started a guest-scholar program. Scientists have accepted his invitation to short-term teaching and research at caltech including celebrities such as Paul Dirac , Erwin Schrödinger , Werner Heisenberg , Hendrik Lorentz and Niels Bohr . Albert Einstein came to Caltech for the first time in 1931 to complete the General Theorymine; He returned to Caltech later as visiting professor in 1932 and 1933.

During World War II , Caltech was one of 131 universities and colleges nationwide to participate in the Navy's V-12 Navy College Training Program, which prepared students for them. became a Navy officer. [18] The United States Navy also maintained a naval aviation training school on Caltech campus, on-site personnel to supervise ammunition and naval facilities, and an officer The task of contacting the Defense Research Commission.

Development stage postwar 

In the 1950s and 1970s, Caltech was home to Murray Gell-Mann and Richard Feynman , whose work was central to the development of the Standard Model of particle physics. Out of the community of physicists, Feynman is also known as an outstanding teacher and an interesting and unusual figure.

During the period of Lee A. DuBridge as director of Caltech (1946-1969), the number of Caltech lecturers doubled and the campus area tripled. Unlike its predecessors, DuBridge is very grateful for the federal government's grant for scientific research. The new research field in full bloom, including biochemical, science of the planet , nuclear astrophysics, and geochemistry . A 200-inch diameter telescope was built near Mount Palomar in 1948; This is the world's most powerful telescope in over 40 years.

Caltech opened its doors to female undergraduates in 1970, during Harold Brown's presidency; This number makes up 14% of the freshman population. Since then, the proportion of female students in Caltech has increased.

University students in Caltech were previously known to have little interest in politics; There was a student-held protest in January 1968 outside the NBC studio in Burbank, when rumors surfaced that NBC would stop starring in Star Trek.. In 1973, students living in the Dabney House protested a visit by the president of the United States, with a banner bearing the words "Impeach Nixon". The following week, Ross McCollum, president of the National Oil Company, wrote an open letter to students at Dabney House saying that because of the student's actions, he decided not to donate. donated one million dollars to Caltech. The Republicans are Dabney's, breaking away from the Dabney House after hearing about the rally.

21st century 

Since 2000, the Einstein Papers Project has been brought to Caltech. This project was established in 1986 to associate, preserve, translate, and publish works in the Albert Einstein heritage left behind and from other collections.

By the fall of 2008, 42% of freshmen were females, the record high in Caltech. That same year, Caltech concluded a six-year fundraising campaign. The campaign earned more than $ 1.4 billion from more than 16,000 organizations and individuals. Nearly half of that money is used to support Caltech educational programs and projects.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Cambridge, Mass, United States

Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT ) is a university study in private city of Cambridge , the state of Massachusetts , USA . MIT is renowned for its research and education in the physical sciences , engineering , as well as in biology , economics , linguistics , and management.

Website: web.mit.edu

Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Cambridge, Mass, United States


MIT was founded in 1861 to meet the needs of industrialization of the United States, based on the model of the University Polytechnic ( Polytechnic University ), and emphasizes the teaching laboratory. MIT initially focused on applied engineering in the undergraduate and graduate levels, and this helped to establish close co-operation with industrial firms. Program reforms under Karl Compton and Vannevar Bush in the 1930s emphasized basic sciences. MIT was admitted to the North American Association of Colleges in 1934. Researchers at MIT studied and designed computers , radar , and navigation systems during World War II.and the Cold War . Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid increase in the number of faculty and the development of the campus under General James Killian. The current campus of 168 acres (68.0 acres) opened in 1916 and expanded over a mile (1.6 km) along the north bank of the Charles River.

Today, MIT is comprised of various academic departments, emphasizing research and education in the fields of science , engineering , and technology . MIT has five schools (School of Science, Engineering School, School of Architecture and Planning, School of Management, and School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences) and a university (University of Science and Technology Medical Technology), covering a total of 32 departments. The university has 81 Nobel laureates, 52 medals for the National Medal of Science, 45 Rhodes Scholars, and 38 MacArthur Fellows. MIT is one of the higher education institutions with the highest standards of student recruitment; For instance, in 2016, there will be 1,620 students graduating selected from 18,109 candidates, so the rate was only 8.95%.

History 


Formation and vision 

In 1859, the proposed use of a new flat at Back Bay, Boston, to build a "Conservatory of Art and Science" was sent to the Massachusetts Legislature but was not approved. In 1861, William Barton Rogers proposed the establishment of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as approved, and Governor John Albion Andrew of Massachusetts signed the decision to establish it on April 10, 1861.

Rogers wants to set up an institution that caters for rapid advances in science and technology. He did not want to establish a professional school (professional school), which wants to create a combination of factors including liberal education and professional education , that "Audiences truly and uniquely practical of an encyclopediaThe polytechnic school, as I see it, teaches not only minutiae and technical operations that can only be practiced in a workshop, but also in the underlying principles of science. and an explanation of those details and operations and, with it, a full and methodical review of all their processes and activities in relation to the laws of physics. " Plan of Rogers reflects the model university research Germany , emphasizing a group of professors independent research activities and teaching taking place around the move-mi-na and in laboratory.
Initial developments

Just two days after MIT's decision was signed, the US Civil War broke out. After a long delay, MIT's first classes took place at the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865. The Institute of Technology has a mission in line with the intent of Morill's Law in 1862 to support the educational institution "to promote liberal education and industrial classes," and is a land-grant school. In 1866, proceeds from the sale of land were used to build new buildings in the Back Bay area.

MIT was unofficially called "Boston Tech." Institute of Technology, was built in the model of the University Polytechnic of Europe and at first insisted on teaching practice.  After a period of financial turmoil, MIT developed in the late nineteenth and early nineteenth centuries under the reign of Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical, maritime, and health engineering are opened, new buildings are built, and the number of students increases to more than one thousand.

The curriculum becomes more vocational, with less focus on theoretical science. In the so-called "Boston Tech" years, MIT's faculty and alumni relied on the determination of Charles W. Eliot , president of Harvard University and past lecturer. MIT has repeatedly wanted to merge MIT with Harvard Lawrence Scientific School.

In 1916, MIT moved to a new campus on a one mile stretch of land along the Charles River in Cambridge, formerly a wetland. The neoclassical campus was designed by William W. Bosworth  and is funded primarily by anonymous contributions from a mysterious person named "Mr. Smith." About 80 years after its first contribution, it was discovered that "Mr. Smith" was the industrialist George Eastman . During this 80-year period, George Eastman donated $ 20 million in cash and shares in Kodak to MIT.

Program reforms 

In the 1930s, Karl Taylor Compton Director and Associate Dean (Academic) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure science as physical and chemical, and thus reduced study time. in practice workshops. Compton's reforms "helped restore and promote confidence in MIT's ability to lead in science as well as in engineering . Unlike other Ivy League schools , MIT is more oriented to middle-class families, relying more on tuition than donations or grants. MIT was admitted to the North American Association of Colleges in 1934.

Still, until 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in his report on the state of education at MIT that "many people consider the technology institute to be essentially a vocational school, "a view that the commission considers" somewhat inadequate "and wants to change. The report looks at the overall degree program, proposes a broader education program, and warns that government-funded research and technology majors deviate from the industry. science and humanities. The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the Sloan School of Management were founded in 1950 to compete with the two mighty schools that MIT At that time: the School of Science and the School of Engineering. Former faculty members in fields such as economics, management, political science, and linguistics now constitute complete and confident faculties by attracting professors respectful and open up competitive postgraduate programs. The School of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of directors Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner from 1966 to 1980, two of whom tended to favor corporations. valve.

Defense research 

MIT's involvement in military research exploded during World War II . In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Department of Science and Development Research and distributed grants to only a select group of universities , including MIT. The engineers and scientists from around the country converged on Radiation Laboratory (Radiation Laboratory) of MIT, was established in 1940 to help the army British developed radar wavelength micrometers. The work done here has had a significant impact on the war and subsequent research activity in this field of study. Other defense research projects include gyro- based control systems and other sophisticated systems for gun sighters, bomb dropping devices, and navigation devices. inertia, performed at the Instrumentation Laboratory founded and operated by Charles Stark Draper; development of digital computers used in flight simulations, in the Whirlwind Project (Project Whirlwind); and high-speed and high-speed photography equipment, edited by Harold Edgerton. At the end of the war, MIT became the nation's largest contractor for wartime research and development (which gave Bush some criticism), hire nearly 4,000 people working in the Radiation Laboratory and received over 100 million dollars ($ 1.2 billion dollars calculated according to the value of the dollar in 2012) before 1946.  The Defense work continues. Government-sponsored post-war research at MIT includes semi-automated terrestrial environment (SAGE) and ballistic missile guidance systems and the Apollo Project .

These activities affected MIT deeply. A 1949 report notes that "there are no signs of slowdown in the life of the Institute of Technology" marking peace back, nostalgic "academic excellence of the pre-war years," though Accepting the significant contributions of military research to greater emphasis on postgraduate education and the rapid increase in receptivity and facilities. Indeed, the number of faculty members has doubled and the number of students has quadrupled during the tenure of Karl Taylor Compton, the mayor of MIT from 1930 to 1948, James Rhyne Killian, commissioner from 1948 to 1957. , and Julius Adams Stratton, president from 1952 to 1957, who shaped the development of the university. By the 1950s, MIT was no longer the only place to benefit industrial companies that had been in close contact for the past three decades, but also closer to the new umbrella organizations. me, volunteer funds and the federal government.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, activists were students and lecturers who protested the Vietnam War and MIT's defense research. League of scientists are concerned (Union of Concerned Scientists) was established on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty and students to shift the emphasis from military research environmental and social issues. MIT eventually reduced its investment in the Radiology Laboratory and transferred all confidential research to the Lincoln Laboratory outside the MIT campus in 1973 in response to its activities. opposed, Since then, the student body, the faculty, and the MIT leadership have been relatively less divided during the turmoil that has taken place in many other universities.

Recent history 

MIT has partnered with and helped advance the digital age. In addition to having pioneering developments for modern computing and networking technologies , students, staff, and faculty at the MAC Project (Project MAC) Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (AI Lab), and Tech Model Railroad Club have written some of the first interactive game programs such as Spacewar! and generates the most modern slang and modern hacker culture . A number of important organizations related to computers was born at MIT in the 1980s: the GNU Project and later the Free Software Foundation are dueRichard Stallman set up at AI Lab in the mid-1980s; MIT Media Lab by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner founded in 1985 to promote research into new uses of computer technology; developed the World Wide Web Consortium standards established by Tim Berners-Lee at the MIT Computer Science Laboratory in 1994; The OpenCourseWare project has helped streamline the course materials of more than 2,000 MIT classes for free access since 2002; and the One Laptop per Child project to expand computer education and connectivity for children around the world, launched in 2005.

MIT was called "sea-grant college" in 1976 to support MIT's research programs in the fields of oceanography and marine science, and was called "space-grant college" in 1989. supporting aerospace and astronaut research programs. Although government funding has been falling for more than a quarter of a century, MIT has implemented a number of successful fundraising campaigns to significantly expand its campus: residences and New sports building on the western campus; Tang Center for Management Education; a number of buildings in the northeast corner of the campus supporting biological research, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and some of the new buildings along Vassar include the Stata Center. Construction in the 2000s included the expansion of the Media Lab building, the campus east of the Sloan School of Management, and residences for postgraduate students to the northwest campus. In 2006, Hockfield established the MIT Energy Research Council to study interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing use of global energy.

Member schools 

MIT has five schools ( school ) and university ( college ):


  • The School of Science, which consists of six faculties (Biology, Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Chemistry, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Mathematics, and Physics) and many centers and laboratories. The School of Science currently has about 300 lecturers, 1200 postgraduate students, and 1000 undergraduate students. This is the second largest campus in MIT. The school has 16 faculty members and 16 alumni have received the Nobel Prize .
  • The School of Engineering, including eight faculties (Aerospace, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Environmental and Construction Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, science and nuclear engineering), a faculty interdisciplinary (technology industrial systems), and many centers and other affiliated laboratories. This is the largest campus in MIT.
  • The School of Architecture and Planning, which consists of five major membership units: the Faculty of Architecture, the Urban Planning and Research Division, the Media Lab, the Center for Real Estate, and the Arts Program. , Culture, and Technology; There are also other attached centers.
  • Sloan School of Management (Sloan School of Management). This is the business school of MIT.
  • School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences), including 13 departments and programs, including the branches of Anthropology , Media Studies comparing, Economics, Foreign Language and Literature, History, Linguistics, Philosophy, Literature, Music, Theater Arts, Political Science, Science Technology and Society, etc.
  • University of Science and Technology in Health Whitaker (Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology).


Academic activity 

MIT is a large-scale research university, largely boarding, with the majority of its students enrolled in graduate and professional programs. The university was accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges in 1929. MIT operates a 4-1- 4, in which the fall semester begins after the Labor Day (the first Monday in September each year) and ends in mid-December, in January there is a four-week period called " of independent activities, "and the spring semester begins in early February and ends in late May.

University program 

MIT offers full-time, four-year college programs in professional, liberal, and scientific disciplines. These programs select the most demanding students, receiving only 9.7% of applicants for the 2010-2011 admission season, and receive very few transfer students. Five of MIT's universities offer 44 different degrees. In 2010-2011, MIT awarded 1,161 bachelor's degree ( bachelor of science , abbreviated as SB ), this is the only qualifications awarded at university MIT. In the fall of 2011, the School of Engineering was the largest student body, accounting for 62.7% of the students, followed by the School of Science with 28.5%, the Humanities School, Arts, and Social Sciences 3.7%, Sloan School of Management 3.3%, and Architecture and Planning School 1.8%.

Postgraduate programs

Unlike most universities in the world, at MIT, the number of postgraduate students is higher than university students (about 60% of the total number of students). Many graduate programs are among the top 10 programs in the nation. The graduate student at MIT can do PhD ( Doctor of Philosophy or Ph.D. and Doctor of Science or Sc.D. ), Master of Science ( Master of Science or M.Sc. ), Master engineering ( Master of engineering or M.Eng. ), Master of architecture ( Master of architecture or M.Arch. ), Master of business administration (Master of Business Administration or MBA ) depending on the discipline.

Princeton University - Princeton, New Jersey , United States

Princeton University is a university private, located in Princeton, New Jersey , United States. Princeton is ranked fourth in the oldest college and university campuses in the United States and one of eight universities and colleges of the Ivy League .

Princeton University - Princeton, New Jersey , United States


Founded in Elizabeth, New Jersey in 1746, it was renamed the University of New Jersey , moved to Newark in 1747, then to Princeton in 1756 and renamed Princeton University. ) in 1896. The University of New Jersey, near Ewing, New Jersey, has no connection with Princeton University. Princeton was one of eight Ivy League schools, and one of nine colonial universities, founded before the American Revolution .

Princeton offers a variety of programs postgraduate research (most notably the Ph.D. programs), and ranked the best in many fields, including mathematics , physics , astronomy and plasma physics , economics , history and philosophy . However, the school does not have a series of graduate schools such as many other colleges - for example, Princeton does not have a medical school , a law school , or a business school.. The most famous professional school is the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (commonly referred to as "Woody Woo"), founded in 1930 named School of Public and International Affairs and renamed in 1948. There are postgraduate programs in engineering , architecture and finance .

The library has more than 11 million books. The school's main library, the Firestone Library , contains about 4 million books, one of the largest in the world (and in the largest libraries of "open shelves" that existed) . The collection includes priceless books such as the Blickling sermon . In addition to Firestone, the school also has many specialized libraries, including architecture, art history, East Asian studies, engineering, geography, diplomacy and public policy and Near Eastern studies.

Princeton ranked 10th with a score of 96.10 in the world university rankings in 2013

University of Chicago - Chicago, Illinois, United States

University Chicago also known as the University of Chicago , is a university study in private Chicago , Illinois , United States. The university was founded by the American Baptist Education Association in 1890 with donations from billionaire John D. Rockefeller . William Rainey Harper became the first president of the university in 1891; The first classes began in 1892.

University of Chicago - Chicago, Illinois, United States


University of Chicago include University ( the College ), graduate programs and various interdisciplinary committees are organized into four faculties , six professional schools, and a school of continuing education. The university has a total of about 15,000 students, of which about 5,000 students study at the University. The University of Chicago has been ranked one of the top 10 universities in the world for years; and was ranked fifth with Stanford University in the "State of the World's Best Colleges Rankings" by the US News & World Report .

Scholars of the University of Chicago have played an important role in the development of various academic areas, including the Chicago School of Economics, the Chicago School of Sociology, the Law and Business Movement the theology of legal analysis, the Chicago literary critique, the Chicago School of Religious Studies, the political science school known as "behavioralism" and in the field of physics where university scientists have created the world's first self-sustaining nuclear reaction. The University of Chicago is also the largest publisher of higher education in the United States, the University of Chicago Press.

The University of Chicago has 89 Nobel Prize winners (10 of whom are faculty members), 15 Rhodes Scholar, and 9 Fields Medalists .

History 


The University of Chicago was founded by the American Baptist Education Association in 1890 as a non-religious educational institution for both men and women, with donations from oil billionaire John D. Rockefeller and built on the land donated by Marshall Field. The university is a legally independent institution; It replaced the Baptist- educated university , which closed in 1886 because of constant financial hardship and crisis. William Rainey Harper became the dean of the university's first modern on July 1, 1891, and the university open to students enrolled on October 1 1892.

The business school was established in 1898, and the law school was established in 1902. Harper died in 1906; following Harper's other three successive chancellors until 1929. During this period, the Oriental Institute was established to support and interpret the archaeological findings of the land. that day was called the Near East.

In the 1890s, fearing that his vast resources would harm smaller schools by attracting the best students, the University of Chicago has affiliated with several colleges and universities in the region: Des Moines, Kalamazoo University, Butler University, and Stetson University. Under the associated agreement, all schools requiring the equivalent of courses at the University of Chicago must notify the college of any appointment or dismissal of the instructor. Appointment of faculty without the consent of the university, and submission of copies of the papers for comments. The University agrees to award any graduating student from the associated school if he or she achieves a grade A throughout the four academic years, and award any graduates with 12 weeks of study at the University. Students or associate professors receive free tuition at the University, and Chicago students are allowed to study at an affiliate school and receive a similar degree and credit. The University also agreed to provide schools with links to books and scientific equipment and instruments at a price; Provides seconded instructors whose affiliates do not have to pay, except for travel expenses; and provides a free copy of a book or magazine published by the University of Chicago Press. This agreement also provides that either party may terminate this association by notifying the other party in accordance with the rules. A number of professors at the University of Chicago at the time disliked this program because of the effort they put off without compensation, and they claimed it lowered the academic reputation of the University of Chicago. This program ended in 1910.

A group of people in suits standing in three rows on the steps in front of a stone building.

The University of Chicago scientists are part of the project to create the world's first self-sustaining nuclear reactor, including Enrico Fermi (top) and Leó Szilárd (second row).
In 1929, the mayor of the university, Robert Maynard Hutchins, began his tenure; The university has undergone many changes during his 24-year term. Hutchins removed rugby from college in an effort to emphasize academics rather than sports, setting up a liberal arts curriculum in higher education. known as the Common Core , and organizes the university's graduate study and research activities into four faculties as of today. In 1933, Hutchins proposed plans to merge the University of Chicago and the Northwestern University into a single university, but this plan was not approved. During his tenure, the University of Chicago Hospital (now called the University of Chicago Medical Center) was completed and began to recruit the first medical students.In addition, the Social Ideology Committee, a prominent campus of the University of Chicago was also established.

The money raised during the 1920s and financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation helped the university survive the Great Depression . During World War II , the university made significant contributions to the Manhattan Project .the University is the first isolation of plutonium and is home to generate nuclear reactions artificial and self-sustaining first, this work by a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi head made in 1942.

In the early 1950s, the number of students applying for fellowship was reduced due to the growing crime and poverty in Hyde Park, which houses the university campus. In return, the university became the main sponsor of a controversial urban renewal project in Hyde Park, which had a significant impact on the architecture and traffic flow in the area.

The University of Chicago also experienced a student-related turbulence in the 1960s, beginning in 1962 when students took over Director George Beadle's office to protest the university's tenancy policy. outside the campus. In 1969, more than 400 students, angry at a famous professor, Marlene Dixon, were fired, took over the Administration Building for two weeks. After the sit-down was over, and when Dixon refused a one-year reappointment decision, 42 students were expelled and 81 students were disciplined. This was the harshest response for student occupations at any U.S. institution during the student movement.

In 1978, Hanna Holborn Gray, then deputy academic director and acting director of Yale , became president of the University of Chicago. She held this office for 15 years.

In 1999, then-president Hugo Sonnenschein announced plans to relax the university 's core curriculum, reducing the number of compulsory courses from 21 to 15. When The New York Times , The Economist , and other major newspapers reported on it, the university became the focus of a nationwide debate on education. The last change was made, but the controversy played a role in Sonnenschein's resignation decision in 2000.

In the past decade, the university has started a number of expansion projects. In 2008, the University of Chicago announced plans to set up the Milton Friedman Institute; This project draws both support and controversy from both faculty and students. This institute would cost about $ 200 million and occupy the buildings of the Chicago Theological Seminary. In the same year, investor David G. Booth donated $ 300 million to the university's Booth Business School; This is the largest donation in university history and the largest donation to a business school. In 2009, the design or construction of some new buildings was completed, half of which cost less than $ 100 million.

Since 2009, a $ 2 billion fundraising campaign has significantly expanded the campus, with the inauguration of the Max Palevsky Condominium, South Campus, Gerald Ratner Sports Center, a new hospital, and a new building for science. Since 2011, major construction projects include the Jules & Gwen Knapp Biomedical Initiative Center, a 10-story medical research center, and buildings added to the medical facilities of the University Medical Center. Study Chicago.

Campus 

A corner of the University of Chicago campus, viewed from the roof of a college building and facing the north. The far right is Lake Michigan of the Great Lakes .

Academic 

Academic, University of Chicago include University ( the College , specializing in education undergraduate), four faculty research postgraduate (Faculty of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty Six professional schools (Medical School, Business School, Law School, School of Theology, School of Public Policy Research, and School of Social Services) , and the Graduate School of Continuing Professional and Professional Studies . The university also has a library system , the University of Chicago Press , the University of Chicago School of Experimentation (University of Chicago Laboratory School , for kindergarten to high school classes), and the University of Chicago Medical Center , and are closely associated with a number of academic institutions. up, including Fermilab and Laboratory Argonne National ( Argonne National Laboratory ).

Read more: University World

University of Oxford - Oxford , England

University of Oxford a university joint research in Oxford , England. Although Oxford's founding date has not been determined, there is evidence that the teaching activity has taken place since 1096. Thus Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world and is the second oldest university in the world. Oxford flourished since 1167 when King Henry IIissued a ban on British students to study at the University of Paris in France. After the controversy between students and residents of Oxford in 1209, some scholars moved to Cambridge , north-east of Oxford, and established an association that would later become the University of Cambridge. These two long-standing British universities are commonly referred to as " Oxbridge ."

University of Oxford - Oxford , England


The University of Oxford is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 member universities and a variety of academic departments organized into four undergraduate faculties . All of these universities are self-governing institutions and are part of the university; Each university controls its membership and is competent in its internal organizational structure as well as its own activities. As a university in the inner city, Oxford did not have a main campus; The buildings and facilities of the university are scattered throughout the city center.

Much of the undergraduate teaching is conducted through weekly study sessions and discussions at member institutions; In addition, there are lectures, lectures, and lab sessions organized by the faculties and faculties of the university. Oxford is home to a number of prestigious scholarships, including the Clarendon Scholarships that have been in operation since 2001 and the Rhodes Scholarship Program for more than a century. Water to study in Oxford. Among Oxford alumni are 27 Nobel laureates , 26 prime ministers , and many heads of state in other countries.

Oxford is a member of the Russell Group of Research Universities in England, the Coimbra Group, the G5 Group, the Federation of Universities for European Studies, and the International Federation of Research Universities, is also a core member. the Europaeum and the "Golden Triangle" (including three leading research universities in England: Cambridge , London , and Oxford) of the British higher education system

History 

The founding of Oxford University has not yet been determined. Although the school taught in 1096, no one was sure when the school was born.

Oxford flourished in 1167 when King Henry II ordered that British students be banned from studying at the University of Paris in France, and that the expulsion of foreigners from the University of Paris led many British scholars to leave France. and to Oxford [ citation needed ] . The historian Gerald of Wales spoke to them in 1188, and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Freisland, came here in 1190. At least 1201 The university is called the Institute. Students are affiliated with each other in the original locale, divided into two "regions", Northern students (including Scottish ones)) and Southern students (including Irish and Welsh ). Members of religious orders such as Franciscan , Carmelite, and Augustinian arrived in Oxford in the 13th century, influencing, and running the dormitories . At this stage, private donors set up member institutions as autonomous academic communities. Among the original donors were William of Durham , in 1249 funding for University College , and John Balliol (Balliol College bearing his name). Another sponsor, Walter de MertonThe British Chancellor, later the Bishop of Rochester, set standards for college life; That way Merton College became a model for funding in Oxford as well as in Cambridge. Since then, more and more students have left the dormitories run by religious orders to live in colleges.

The new academic era of the Renaissance brought a deep impression on Oxford University since the 15th century. Among the scholars of this period were William Grocyn who contributed to the restoration of the study of Hi writing , and John Colet , a talented Bible scholar . The outbreak of the Protestant Reformation was also at a time when the relationship with the Roman Catholic Church was cut off. Disobedient people leave Oxford for continental Europe , mainly focusing on Douai University . The educational method at Oxford was transformed from a medieval academic schoolto the Renaissance education. In 1636, Director General William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, standardized university regulations; Much of the provisions of this statute remained in place until the mid-nineteenth century. Laud was a devotee of functions designed to secure concessions for the University Press, also contributing significantly to The Bodleian Library, the university's main library.

During the British Civil War (1642 - 1649) the university was the center of the royalist party, while the town of Oxford supported the rival Congress. Yet, since the middle of the 10th century, Oxford University has rarely been involved in political disputes.

In 1729, at the Christ Church School, a group of students, led by brothers John and Charles Wesley , came together to look for a more religious way of life by studying the Bible . , and share spiritual experiences; and at the same time engaged in philanthropic work such as visitation of prisoners, and teaching of orphans. The "Holy Club", as they were called at the time, was the predecessor of the Methodist Movement , which has had a profound influence on the Protestant community to this day.

The mid-19th century witnessed the impact of the Oxford Movement (1833-1845), initiated by John Henry Newman (later Cardinal ). The influence of the reform model from German universities to Oxford was studied by such scholars as Edward Bouverie Pusey , Benjamin Jowett , and Max Müller.

In the nineteenth century, many reforms were implemented such as replacing oral questioning in written examinations with a more open attitude towards non-state churches, and establishing four member universities. for women. There were further reforms in the twentieth century, such as the forced extermination of daily worship, not only the pastors who could receive the title of Hebrew teacher , in the tendency to minimize the traditional, and start new courses in science and medicine. Since 1920, the ancient Greek language requirement for admission has been terminated , and the Latin language since 1960.

On the long list of prominent Oxford University alumni there are many prominent people in politics, science, medicine, and English literature. More than 40 Nobel Prizes and more than 50 world leaders have had relationships with Oxford University.

Education for Women 

Since 1875, the university passed a regulation allowing the enrollment of female undergraduates. The four women's founding schools were founded on the active involvement of the Association for Higher Education for Women (AEW). 1878 established Lady Margaret School, 1879 Somverille College; The first 21 female students came to lecture in the upper floors of an Oxford bakery. Then there are the girls' school St Hugh (1886) ) St Hilda (1893), and St. Anne (1952).

Oxford has long been regarded as the stronghold of male privilege, so that until October 7, 1920, students of the new school enjoy full benefits. In 1927, the department decided to limit the number of female students to no more than one quarter of male students, and by 1957 this regulation was canceled. However, before the 1970s, the university maintained a separate education system between male and female schools, and female schools were limited to admission. Only since 1959 did the women's schools get equality.

In 1974 the Brasenose, Jesus, Wadham, Hertford, and St Catherine schools began to recruit female students. In 2008, the only surviving sister school, St Hilda, took male students, ending a long period of sex discrimination in enrollment in Oxford. [30] By 1988, 40% of undergraduates in Oxford were women; This ratio is currently 48/52, men continue to maintain the majority here.

Context for Dorothy Sayers ' detective novel Gaudy Night - Sayers is one of the first women to receive an Oxford degree - took place at a girls' school in Oxford, the issue of educating women is also the heart of the story.

Organization 

As a university with many affiliates, Oxford's organizational structure can be confusing for those unfamiliar with the model. The University looks like a federation of more than forty autonomous universities, but is run by an administrative apparatus headed by a deputy director. Departmental majors are concentrated here; They do not depend on any member school. These faculties provide teaching and research staff, curriculum and instructional materials, conducting studies, presentations, and conferences.

Member schools organize classes for undergraduate students. Faculty faculty members and faculty members are allocated to many member institutions, although some non-interdisciplinary schools such as Nuffield College specialize in social sciences, while most member colleges have Multidisciplinary broad links. Educational facilities such as libraries are available for all levels of education: the central university has the Bodleian Library, each department and department has its own library, such as the English Language Arts Library, At each member school there is a multi-disciplinary library.

Administration 

The official leader of the university is Chancellor , currently Lord Patten of Barnes, although, like almost all British universities, the position of the institute is symbolic, not resolved. daily routine of the school. Convocation members elect a director for a term of office. At first, only graduates with doctoral or master's degrees were admitted to the conference, and later all graduates were members.

The vice-chancellor , incumbent Andrew Hamilton, is actually the head of the university. There are currently five Assistant Deputies in charge of Education, Research, Planning and Resources, Development and External Affairs, Human Resources and Equal Opportunities. The University Board of Trustees is the governing body of the school including the Vice Rector, the faculty members, and other members elected by the Congregation , along with a number of observers from the Federation. member.

The "College of Higher Education", which has 3,700 members, includes academics and university administrators, ultimately responsible for legislative matters: discussion and publish the policies submitted by the University Council. Only Oxford and Cambridge (similarly structured) have such democratic governance.

Oxford University is a public university, receiving government funding, but also a "private university" in the sense that it is fully autonomous, as well as the option to become a private school if it refuses to accept it. money from public funds.

Member School 

There are two types of college campuses: college and hall . Oxford has 38 colleges ( universities ) and 6 Permanent Private Halls (PPH). The difference between college and PPH is that college is run by college commissioners, while PPH is established and continues to be run, at least in part, by the relevant Christian church.) Each member unit has autonomy in terms of personnel, internal structure, and administration

Teaching and Diploma 

At the bachelor level , the curriculum focuses on group lessons, with each group (1-4 students) discussing a topic or solving a thesis. Often there is one or two weekly group discussions under the guidance of the instructor. In addition, there are lectures, classes, and seminars held on a faculty scale. Graduate students are required to attend classes and seminars, although they must spend more time on their own research.

The university organizes examinations and awards degrees. Must pass two rounds of examination is a prerequisite for the first degree. The first session, called Honor Moderations ("Mods" and "Honors Mods") or preliminaries ("Prelims") are usually held at the end of the first year (after two semesters if studied by Law , Theology , Philosophy , Psychology). , or after five semesters if you study classical subjects.

Batch testing Monday, the Final Honor School ( "Finals") held at the end of undergraduate programs (for the humanities and social sciences ) or at the end of each school year after the first year ( mathematics , physics and life sciences , and some social sciences . Based on the results of the final exams, candidates will receive a ranking in the best, best, average, and average, or simply pass the exam. The "average" category accounted for the highest proportion of candidates passing the exam. However, only from the "average" or more to go to graduate programs.

School year 

Each school year has three semesters. The Michaelmas semester lasts from October to December; Hilary semester from January to March; and Trinity Semester from April to June. The formal dress is required when attending examinations, disciplinary meetings, and when students come to university.

Finance 

During the 2005-06 school year, the University earned £ 608m , and member schools earned £ 237m (£ 41m from the university). For the University, the largest contributions came from the national budget (166 million pounds), and research grants (213 million pounds). For member schools, the biggest contribution comes from contributions and interest (£ 82m), and dormitory fees (£ 47m). While the University has a larger operating budget, its affiliates have much larger donations, cumulating up to £ 2.5bn, compared to £ 900m donated to the University.

In May 2008, the University launched a fundraising campaign called Oxford Thinking - The Campaign for the University of Oxford . With the objective of a minimum of 1, 25 billion pounds, a search campaign funding for three areas: the academic programs and the teaching positions and research, student support, construction infrastructure and infrastructure.

Enrollment 


Age 
Oxford does not limit enrollment to bachelor degree. Previously, male freshmen were usually fourteen to nineteen. Jeremy Bentham enrolled in 1761 at the age of thirteen, an exception. Today, the normal age to enter Oxford is seventeen, though most are at the age of eighteen or nineteen. Private Harris College accepts only mature students (over 21 years old). In theory, even if you are young you can still enroll if you meet the entrance requirements. In 1983, Ruth Lawrence became an Oxford student at the age of twelve.

Process 

Like other universities in the UK, applicants to Oxford must apply in accordance with the University Admissions Services (UCAS) system, which is October 15th each year. In order to accurately assess individuals, applicants are not allowed to apply for Oxford and Cambridge in the same year, except for the Organ Scholarship applicants, and the second degree candidates.

Member schools work together to ensure that the best students will gain a place in the University regardless of the school they choose. Approximately 60% of the shortlisted applicants, who will be invited to an interview for three days in December, provide meals and accommodation for the invited guests. Students outside Europe can be interviewed remotely, for example via the Internet . In 2007, faculty members, faculties and departments published a "general framework" that outlines the principles and procedures to be followed.

The offer will be sent shortly before Christmas. Of the four candidates selected, one will be invited to attend a non-applicants school.

For high school graduates, many schools prefer to choose those who have done research with one of the faculty members in the school, the subject will consider before transferring to the school.

The University's Institute of Continuing Education supports older undergraduate students. Most attended Kellogg School, although some schools accepted them.

Educational Facilities 



Library 

Oxford has 102 libraries, of which 30 are belonging to the Bodleian Library chain , the Central Research Library of the University. With more than 11 million books on 120-mile (190 km) bookcases, the Bodleian Library is the second-largest library in the UK, behind the British Library . The Bodleian Library is one of six libraries in the United Kingdom that have archival privileges, ie the right to request all books, journals, journals, and essays published in the UK to submit to the library a publication of that book. Therefore, the book library chain's annual growth rate is more than 3 miles (5 km). Main facilities include the original library at Old Schools Square ( Sir Thomas Bodleyfounded in 1598, opened in 1602), and the Radcliffe Camera, Clarendon, and New Bodleian buildings. A tunnel beneath the Broad Street connects these buildings together. Bodleian library collections include the Bodleian Law Library, the Indian Academic Library, the Radcliffe Science Library, the Eastern Academic Library, and the Vere Harmworth Library of American History.

In October 2010, inauguration of a new bookstore in South Marston, Swindon, and a rebuilding of the New Bodleian building, will be named the new Weston Library inaugurated between 2014-15, to build a gallery of collections of the library (including a collection of Shakespeare plays published in 1623, commonly referred to as First Folio , and the Gutenberg Bible ), as well as other exhibitions.

Oxford's specialized libraries include the Sackler Library, which houses classic collections, and other libraries affiliated to academic committees and member colleges. Almost all of Oxford's libraries share the same catalog, the Oxford Library Information System.

Museum

Besides its massive library system, Oxford also has museums. Ashmolean Museum , founded in 1683, is Britain's oldest museum, also the oldest museum in the world. The museum's holdings are important collections of art and archeology, including works by Michelangelo , Leonardo da Vinci , Turner , and Picasso , and precious objects such as stone Scorpion, Parian Beer, and Treasure Alfred. There are also guitar violin 's neck Stradivarius , " The Messiah ", is considered one of the violin exists finest.

After a £ 49m rebuild , the Ashmolean Museum opened in November 2009 with double occupancy and new amenities.

The Museum of Natural History holds the natural history specimens of the University. Located in a large neo-Gothic building on Parks Road, belonging to the University of Science Park. In the museum's collection there are skeletons of tyrant dinosaurs and tricolor dinosaurs, along with an almost complete collection of dodo birds found anywhere on the site. world.

The Pitt Rivers Museum, founded in 1884, is home to the University's archaeological and archeological collections, which store more than 500,000 artifacts. Many museum staff have been teaching anthropology in Oxford since its inception, when General Augustus Pitt Rivers asked the university to institute anthropology on one of the conditions he offered when contributing to the school. .

Museum of the History of Science in the old building on Broad Street, contains 15,000 artifacts from ancient times to the 20th century, typical for most every aspect of the history of science.

The Faculty of Music is located on St. Aldate Street in Oxford, and holds a Bate collection of western classical instruments from the Middle Ages to the present.

The Botanic Gardens are the oldest botanical garden in England, and the third oldest in the world. More than 90% of the world's plants are found here. The Christ Church Gallery has a collection of more than 200 works by artists before 1800.

Prestige 

On the Times Good University Guide 2008, Oxford was number one in the UK, followed by Cambridge. Oxford was ranked first in the Politics, Physiology, English, Painting, Business, Middle Eastern and African Studies, Music, Philosophy, Linguistics ranks first with Cambridge. Oxford is in Cambridge for 17 other subjects. Oxford has three thirds, one third, and three ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth overall.

Oxford ranked 10th in the world and 2 in Europe in the Academic Ranking of World Universities.

On the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2011, Oxford ranked fourth in the world ( Caltech Number One, Harvard and Stanford in second place), and first in Europe. On the QS World University Rankings 2011, Oxford ranked second behind Cambridge

Famous people 

There are many Oxford ( Oxonian ) alumni famous all over the world:

In the list of British Prime Minister there are people who studied at Oxford as William Gladstone , Herbert Asquith , Clement Attlee , Harold Macmillan , Harold Wilson , Edward Heath , Margaret Thatcher , Tony Blair and former Prime Minister David Cameron .

At least 30 world leaders have benefited from education in Oxford, including Harald V of Norway , Abdullah II of Jordan , three Australian Prime Ministers ( John Gorton , Malcolm Fraser and Bob Hawke ), the two Prime Ministers of Canada ( Lester B. Pearson , and John Turner ), Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Indira Gandhi (though she has not completed all study programs for graduation), year Prime Minister of Pakistan ( Liaquat Ali Khan , Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy , Sir Feroz Khan Noon , Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto ), SWRD Bandaranaike (former Prime Minister of Sri Lanka), Norman Washington Manley of Jamaica, Eric Williams (Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago), Álvaro Uribe (former President of Colombia '), Abhisit Vejjajiva (former Prime Minister of Thailand), and Bill Clinton (US President first studied at Oxford; he was Scholarships Rhodes) . Arthur Mutambara (Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe ) is also the Rhodes Scholar. Festus Mogae (former President of Botswana ) was a student at University College .

The Burmese democracy and the Nobel Prize Laureate , Aung San Suu Kyi , studied in St. Louis. Hugh's College. In addition to Aung San Suu Kyi , there are 47 Nobel Laureates who have studied or taught at Oxford.

Oxford is also home to at least 12 saints, and 20 archbishops of Canterbury, including the recently Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams , who studied at Wadham College and became a professor at Christ Church .

Religious reformer John Wycliffe was a scholar and professor at Balliol College . John Colet , Christian humanist, chief scholar of St. Paul's Cathedral , studied at Magdalen College . The Methodist Initiative , John Wesley , studied at Christ Church College and was elected as a trustee of Lincoln College . The Oxford Movement in the Church of England also emanates from here with characters such as John Henry Newman , Edward Bouverie Pusey and John Keble .

Other religious figures are Mirza Nasir Ahmad , the Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Islamic Community, and Shoghi Effendi , one of the leaders of the Baha'i religion .

About 40 Olympic medalists have academic ties with Oxford, including Sir Matthew Pinsent , four gold medals in rowing. TE Lawrence student of Jesus College , in addition to many students of Oxford other outstanding explorer, writer, and poet, Sir Walter Raleigh , (who studied at Oriel College but left school without a degree) and Australian media mogul , Rupert Murdoch.

In the long list of authors with ties to Oxford with John Fowles , Theodor Geisel , Thomas Middleton , Samuel Johnson , Robert Graves , Evelyn Waugh , Lewis Carroll , Aldous Huxley , Oscar Wilde , CS Lewis , JRR Tolkien , Graham Greene , VSNaipaul , Philip Pullman , Joseph Heller , Vikram Seth , the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley ,John Donne , AE Housman , WH Auden , TS Eliot , Wendy Perriam and Philip Larkin , and seven poets award ( Thomas Wharton , Henry James Pye , Robert Southey , Robert Bridges , Cecil Day-Lewis , Sir John Betjeman , and Andrew Motion ).

The economists Adam Smith , Alfred Marshall , EF Schumacher and Amartya Sen , and philosophers Robert Grosseteste , William of Ockham , John Locke , Thomas Hobbes , Jeremy Bentham , and AJ Ayer studied in Oxford. Prominent scientists like Robert Hooke , Stephen Hawking , Richard Dawkins , Frederick Soddy , Tim Berners-Lee , co-inventor of theWorld Wide Web , and Dorothy Hodgkin . Robert Boyle , Albert Einstein , Edwin Hubble , Erwin Schrödinger also studied or worked in Oxford.

Similarly, composers Sir Hubert Parry , George Butterworth , John Taverner , William Walton , James Whitbourn and Andrew Lloyd-Webber each lived in Oxford.

Actor Hugh Grant , Kate Beckinsale , Dudley Moore ,  Michael Palin , and Terry Jones [131] former students bachelor's degrees at the University, also studied at Oxford was Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck , and filmmakers Ken Loach and Richard Curtis , both of whom were awarded Oscars . In the field of sports is also Imran Khan

Oxford in literature and media 

Oxford University is used as a backdrop for many fictional literary works. Since 1400, Chaucer has referred to the "Oxenford student" in Cantebury Tales . In 1989, 533 novels took Oxford as the backdrop, and this number is growing. Among the famous works can Brideshead Revisited since volumes of Evelyn Waugh to His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman .

University College London( UCL) - London, United Kingdom

University College London ( Old Name: University of London - New Name: University College London - UCL, commonly known as the London University ) , is a university public conjugate in London , England . The university consists of 18 member universities , 10 research institutes , and a number of other important academic units.



This is the second largest university in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland based on the total number of full time students, with approximately 135,000 students enrolled on campus and more than 50,000 students studying distance. The University of London was founded in 1836 under a royal decree, merging with London University (now University College London ) and King's College (now King's College London ).

In most real activities, from enrollment to financial aid, member universities operate on a standalone basis, and recently some of them have been granted the same degree of licensing. It is also located in the university complex. The nine largest universities in the university are:


  • King's College ( King's College London )
  • University of London ( University College London )
  • Birkbeck School ( Birkbeck, University of London )
  • Goldsmiths ( Goldsmiths, University of London )
  • The Business School ( London Business School )
  • Queen Mary College ( University of London )
  • Royal Holloway College ( University of London )
  • The School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London )
  • School of Economics and Political Science ( London School of Economics and Political Science ).


University-specific universities include:

Heythrop College ( Heythrop College, University of London )
St George's College ( St George's, University of London ).
National School Study ( Imperial College London ) was separated from the University of London in 2007

University of Cambridge - Trinity Ln, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England

University of Cambridge a university public research complexes in Cambridge , England . Founded in 1209, Cambridge is the second oldest institution in the English-speaking world, behind only the University of Oxford , and the fourth oldest in the world. Cambridge formed from a group of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute between them and local residents. These two "ancient universities" have many similarities and are often referred to by their common name " Oxbridge ".



Cambridge is made up of a variety of institutions, including 31 university affiliates and more than 100 academic departments organized into six schools . The buildings of the university are located throughout the city, many of which are of historic value. These universities are self-governing institutions, established as constituents of universities. By 2014, the university had a combined income of £ 1.51 billion , of which £ 371 million was from research contracts and grants. The university and its affiliates have a total of £ 4.9 billion in donations, the largest number in any university outside of the United States . Cambridge is a member of many associations and is part of the "Golden Triangle" - the top three universities in the UK: Cambridge, London , and Oxford .

Cambridge students attend lectures and lab sessions organized by departments under the supervision of the university. Cambridge runs eight museums of art, culture, and science, including the Fitzwilliam Museum and a botanical garden. The Cambridge library has a total of about 15 million books. Cambridge University Press, part of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the world's second largest publisher run by a university. Cambridge is regularly ranked as one of the leading universities in the world rankings.

Cambridge has many well-known alumni, including some outstanding mathematicians, scientists, and politicians; The 90 Nobel laureates are members of Cambridge. Throughout its history, the university has been described in many literary and artistic works by many authors including Geoffrey Chaucer , EM Forster, and CP Snow.

History 


Traceable time formally established the University of Cambridge to the year 1231 when King Henry III of England issued certificates accredited school with the same rights as ius non trahi extra (right to discipline members of the Council) and Tax exemptions, followed by a 1233 edict by Pope Gregory IX, allow graduates from Cambridge to be "taught everywhere in the Christian world ." [12] After the Pope Nicholas IV described Cambridge as a studium generale (institution multi-brand, have master's degrees, and draws students from many countries) in a letter in 1290, [13 ]This title is confirmed by a 1318th edict by Pope John XXII , [14] which attracts many scholars from universities across Europe for study and teaching. [13]

Establishment of member schools 

Chapel of King's College. Old Court of Clare College is on the left. Below is the Cam River .
The university ( college ), a member of the University of Cambridge are the institutions complement system. There is no such institution as the university itself.

Hugh Balsham , Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse in 1284, the first Cambridge school. Many other member schools were established in the 14th and 15th centuries, and continue to appear throughout the centuries until recently, despite a 204-year gap between the founding of Sidney Sussex (1596) ) and Downing College (1800). The newest member is Robinson, built in the 1970s. However, Homerton, due to be recognized as a member school in March 2010, is considered the newest member school.

In the Middle Ages , many member schools were formed for the sole purpose of praying for the souls of the founders, thus linking them closely to the chapels or monasteries. When the Monastic Discipline Code was enacted in 1536, the goal of membership was changed. King Henry VIII ordered the university to dissolve the Faculty of Law of the Church and ceased teaching "scholastic philosophy". Membership begins with changing curricula, church law, and focus on theology, the Bible , and mathematics .

Leaving the Church Law, Cambridge also left Catholicism . From 1520, Luther's theology and Protestant Reformation began to appear in university curricula, with contributions by people like Thomas Cranmer , later Archbishop of Canterbury. In the 1930s, Henry VIII asked Cranmer and other scholars to outline a new direction not only of Catholic doctrine but of Martin Luther thought .

Nearly a century later, the university became the focus of a schism within the Protestant community . Many aristocrats, intellectuals, and ordinary people find the Church of England has become too Catholic and is being used by the king to seize the power of the counties. While East Anglia is a stronghold of the Puritan movement , in Cambridge, the schools of Emmanuel, St Catherine's Hall, Sidney Sussex, and Christ's College hold the same role. These colleges have trained many graduates pursuing an independent position with the state religion. Due to their social status and persuasion, they have a lot of influence on society. About 20 000 Puritans came to the areaNew England founded the Massachusetts Bay Settlements during the historic exodus of the 1630s. Oliver Cromwell , commander in the British Civil War during the British Civil War and leader of the Commonwealth (1649 - 1660) Studying in Sidney Sussex.

Mathematics and Mathematical Physics 

The one-time math test is a compulsory exam for all students wishing to take a bachelor's degree, the lowest in Cambridge for general and scientific sciences. From the time of Isaac Newton in the late 17th century to the mid-19th century, the university was especially interested in applied mathematics, especially mathematical physics (developing mathematical methods applied in physics). This is also called Tripos . The student is awarded an honorary degree after passing the mathematical Tripos exam, known as the Wrangler , the Senior Wrangler . Due to its highly competitive nature, the Tripos Mathematics program at Cambridge has helped create big names in English science, includingJames Clerk Maxwell , Lord Kelvin , and Lord Rayleigh . However, some well-known alumni like GH Hardy do not like this system, they feel too focused on the scores in the exams without regard to the subject.

Pure mathematics at Cambridge achieved much in the 19th century but ignored the fundamental developments of French and German mathematics . The pure mathematical study at Cambridge achieved the highest international standard in the early 20th century thanks to the work of GH Hardy and his partner JE Littlewood. In geometry, WVD Hodge helped Cambridge integrate internationally in the 1930s.

Despite its diverse work in research and teaching, Cambridge to this day still retains its strength in mathematics. The Cambridge alumni won six Fields medals and a Mathematical Abel Prize , while recipients representing Cambridge won four Fields medals. The university also offers the Advanced Diploma in Mathematics.

Contemporary 

Trinity Road in the Snow, with King's College Chapel (middle), Clare College Chapel (right), and Old Schools (left)

After the University of Cambridge Act of 1856 formalized the institution of the university, subjects such as theology, history, and contemporary language were included in the curriculum. [20] Trinity College's Richard Fitzwilliam has donated many materials for new courses in art, architecture, and archeology. [21] From 1896 1902, Downing College sold part of the land to provide construction funds Downing Site area includes laboratories for anatomy, genetics, and earth sciences. [22] During this period, the New Museums Site was built, including the Cavendish Laboratory, later moved to the West Cambridge Site, and other departments of chemistry and medicine.

World War I disrupted the school's operations when 14,000 members were killed, of whom 2,470 were killed.

After the Second World War , the university witnessed a period of rapid growth both in the number of students and in the location of study; This is due to the accomplishments and reputation of many scientists from Cambridge.

Contribute to science 

The Cambridge alumni have made a number of important contributions


  • Discovering the Laws of Motion , and Integral - Sir Isaac Newton
  • Hydrogen discovery - Henry Cavendish
  • Basic contributions to thermodynamics - Lord Kelvin
  • Systematics of electromagnetism - James Clerk Maxwell
  • Finding Electronic - JJ Thomson
  • Finding Nuclear Nuclear - Ernest Rutherford
  • Find the theory of evolution by natural selection - Charles Darwin
  • Fundamental contributions to Darwin's theory of evolution and to Mendel's genetics - Ronald Fisher
  • Computerization of Computer Theory - Alan Turing
  • Finding Double DNA Helix - Francis Crick and James D. Watson
  • Fundamental Contribution to Quantum Mechanics - Paul Dirac
  • Fundamental contribution to cosmology - Stephen Hawking
  • Fundamental Contribution to String Theory - Michael Green


Education for women 

At first only men were allowed to attend Cambridge. Girton College was founded in 1869 by Emily Davies, three years later Newham College (founded by Anne Clough and Henry Sidgwick), and Hughes Hall in 1885 (Elizabeth Phillips). Hughes founded, New Hall (later renamed Murray Edwards College) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965. Students were allowed to take the examinations from 1882, but by 1948 the status of the student was new. full recognition. [26]

Because traditional member schools do not accept women, they can only apply to schools for girls. However, between 1972 and 1988, three Churchill, Clare, and King's schools began to accept female students, and other schools followed suit. By contrast, when a girls 'school, Girton, began receiving male students in 1979, other girls' schools did not follow Girton. In 2008, when St Hilda's College of Oxford dropped the ban on male admissions, Cambridge is the only university in the UK to retain its affiliates who refuse to accept male students such as Newham, Murray Edwards, and Lucy Cavendish.

During the 2004-5 school year, the sex ratio among students was 52% male and 48% female. [29]

Location 

The university is located in the center of Cambridge with a significant proportion of students (nearly 20%). [30] Most of the members older than occupy positions adjacent to the city center and the River Cam , on this river long people still sail to contemplate the beauty of the natural landscape and the architecture. [thirty first]


Education Department

The university is divided into areas where different departments are located. The main areas are:


  • Addenbrooke's
  • Downing Site
  • Madingley / Girton
  • New Museums Site
  • Old Addenbroke's
  • Old Schools
  • Silver Street / Mill Lane
  • Sidgwick Site
  • West Cambridge


The College's Clinical Medical Clinic is affiliated with Addenbrooke Hospital, where students spend three years practicing their bachelor's degree, 32 while West Cambridge is extensively expanded. develop sports. In addition, the Judge Business School on Trumpington Road since 1990 provides management courses and is regularly listed by the Financial Times in the top 20 business schools in the world.

Due to the location of the adjacent areas, thanks to the relatively flat terrain of Cambridge, the preferred means of transportation is the bicycle : one in five trips in town is by bicycle.

The school and town 

The relationship between the university and the town is not always smooth. The term Town and Gown is used to distinguish Cambridge residents from college students, often dressed in uniforms. There have been many stories of fierce competition between the school and the town: in 1381 there were violent clashes that led to the attacks and the looting of university property, when local people challenged the governmental grants to the faculty. Shortly thereafter, the director was given special powers to try crimes and restore order in the city.

Attempts were made to reconcile between the two groups, and by the 16th century, agreements had been reached to upgrade the streets and student residences around the city. However, when an epidemic struck the city in 1630, conflict broke out when member schools refused to help ill people by shutting down school sites.

Today, disputes have subsided, and the university has become a source of employment for local people and has helped to raise the standard of living in the area. The strong growth in the number of high tech service providers, biotechnology, and related enterprises is located near the city called the Cambridge Phenomenon: from 1960 to 2010 there were an additional 1,500 new companies with 40 000 jobs directly related to the presence and importance of this institution.

Organization 

Cambridge is a college-type university with a number of membership institutions, meaning that the university is made up of independent and autonomous membership schools, each with its own assets and income. Most member colleges gather faculty and students from a variety of disciplines, each with its own faculty, school or department, but all belong to the university.

The faculties, under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, are responsible for organizing teaching, opening seminars, study guides and course orientation. The Board of Governors and the central administration, led by the Deputy Director, form the University of Cambridge. Educational facilities such as the library are provided at all levels: at the university (Cambridge University Library), at faculties (faculty libraries such as the Squire Law Library), and at the member school ( Each member school has a multi-disciplinary library with the main objective of serving undergraduate students.

Member School 

Member institutions - autonomous institutions with their own property and self-advocacy - are considered part of the university. All students and most faculty members are affiliated with a member school. The key facets of the member institutions are the availability of facilities, welfare, social functions, and curricula for undergraduate students. All faculties, departments, research centers, and libraries are affiliated to the university, which provides courses and degrees, particularly the organization of undergraduate programs into small groups. Instructors - not just a single student - are practiced in member schools. The faculty members themselves are appointed faculty, who are also members of the faculty of the university.

Cambridge has 31 member schools, including three for women: Murray Edwards, Newham, and Lucy Cavendish. Other boys and girls attend school, although they were mostly male. Darwin was the first school to receive both men and women, while Churchill, Clare, and King's were all male until 1972. It was not until 1988 that Magdalene accepted the female student body, and was the last school to receive women. Clare Hall and Darwin only provide graduate training, while Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund's, and Wolfson accepts adults only (enrollment age is 21 or older), both undergraduate and graduate. . The remaining schools offer undergraduate and graduate programs without an age limit.

Not all member schools offer the full range of disciplines, some of which choose to train in a number of disciplines such as architecture , art history , or theology , but most of them are multidisciplinary. Some schools favor certain subjects, such as the Churchill School of Science and Technology. King's students are renowned for their left-leaning political attitudes, while those attending Robinson or Churchill School are known for their efforts to minimize environmental harm.

Accommodation expenses as well as the cost of studying in Cambridge vary, depending on each member school.

There are also theological schools in Cambridge but linked to lower-level institutions such as Wescott House, Westminster College and Ridley Hall.

School, Faculty, and Board 

In addition to the 31 member institutions, the university also has 150 departments, faculties, institutions, and other institutions. Members of these institutions are also members of member institutions; They are responsible for running the entire academic program of the university.

A "School" of Cambridge University is a collection of related departments and other units. Each school establishes a governing board through an election - called the "Board" of the school - including representatives of the constituent units. There are six schools in Cambridge:


  • Arts and Humanities
  • Biological Sciences
  • Clinical medicine
  • Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Physical Science
  • Technology


Departments are responsible for organizing teaching and research. There are also a few units called "Syndicate" that also support teaching and research functions such as Cambridge Assessment, University Press, and the University Library.

Administration 

The term of office of the Chancellor, not limited to tenure and ritual only, is now occupied by David Sainsbury, Baroness of Sainsbury of Turville, after the Duchy of Edinburg (Queen Elizabeth II ) retired on his 90th birthday in June 2011.

In addition to Lord Sainsbury, Abdul Arain, owner of a grocery store, Brian Blessed, actor, and Michael Mansfield, a lawyer, were also nominated for this position. The election took place on October 14 and 15, 2011. David Sainsbury won 2 839 out of 5 888 votes, first.

The current Deputy Director of Leszek Borysiewics, a Polish-English immunologist, begins his seven-year term as of October 1, 2010. Unlike the director, the deputy director is in fact a leader. university. Most of the board members are from the university.

Senate and Regent House 

All those who have a Master's Degree or above are members of the Senate , have the right to elect the Director and High Steward , as well as elect two members of the British Parliament until the Charter of the University of Cambridge canceled in 1950.

Prior to 1926, the Senate was the governing body of the university, functioning today as Regent House . The Regent House is the governing body of the university, including all important members working at the university and member institutions, the High Steward, Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary.

School year 

There are three semesters for each academic year: the Michalelmas semester begins in October and ends in December; Lent semester from January to March; and the Easter Semester from April to June.


Senate House is lit in the 800th anniversary of the founding of Cambridge University
Course lengths of the bachelor program last for eight weeks per semester. According to the regulations of the university, all students must reside within 10 miles of St Mary the Great Cathedral. Students will only be awarded a bachelor's degree if they comply with this requirement for nine semesters (three years), for a master's degree in science, engineering, or mathematics in 12 semesters.

Cambridge semesters are shorter compared to many other UK universities. [58] Students must also prepare their notebooks for three holiday periods (Christmas, Easter, and winter holidays).

Teaching 

The departments of the university are responsible for holding lectures while the member institutions hold conferences. The science has more lab practice, also within the responsibility of the board. During the discussions, students are divided into small groups (usually one to three people) discussing under the guidance of a teacher or a graduate student.

Often students are asked to carefully prepare the content they will discuss with the teacher as well as present the difficulties they encounter with their classroom lectures. Assignments are usually an essay on a selected teacher topic, or an issue a teacher has mentioned in class. Depending on the subject and the member school, students may have one to four sessions per week.

Finance 

So far, Cambridge is the richest university, not only in the UK but across Europe , with contributions up to £ 4.3bn in 2011,  of which about 1.6 Directly to the university and $ 2.7 billion to the member institutions (also in 2011, Oxford had only about £ 3.3 billion). The university's operating budget exceeds £ 1 billion a year. Each member school is an independent institution, which has its own donations. Compared to universities in the United States , Cambridge occupies fifth place among the eight Ivy League academies , and the eleventh of all universities in the United States, although this comparison is rather lame because Cambridge is a subsidy from the national budget. Much of Cambridge's income comes from scholarships and research and scholarships provided by the UK government. Another benefit comes from the activities of Cambridge University Press.

In 2000, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation donated $ 210 million through the Gates Scholarship Program to students from outside the UK to pursue graduate study at Cambridge.

2000 when the 800th Anniversary of the Cambridge Campaign was launched with the goal of raising £ 1bn in funding for the year 2012 - the first American-style fundraising campaign to be run in Europe - just in 2009-10, Donations amounted to 1.037 billion.

Collection 


Library 

The university has 114 libraries . [65] The University of Cambridge Library is the central research library, which houses 8 million books, and has the right to request a free edition of each book in the UK and Ireland .
In addition to the central library and its facilities, each department has a specialized library, such as the Seely History Library of the History Faculty, which has more than 100,000 books currently stored there. In addition, each member school has its own library with the goal of serving college students. School members often own many ancient books and manuscripts in separate libraries. The Wren Library of Trinity College has over 200,000 books published before 1800, while the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College owns one of the largest collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, with more than 600 copies. .

Museums 

The University of Cambridge runs eight museums of art, culture, and science, and a botanical garden:


  • Fitzwilliam Museum of Art and Antiques
  • Kettle's Yard Contemporary Art Museum
  • The Archeology and Anthropology Museum, Cambridge University hosts collections of local artifacts and artefacts from archeology and ethnology from around the world.
  • The Zoological Museum has many animal species from around the world known for its whale skeleton. The museum also has categories collected by Charles Darwin
  • Museum of Classical Archeology, Cambridge
  • Whipple Museum of History of Science
  • Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences
  • Polar Museum, Polar Research Center, honors Captain Scott and members of the expedition, as well as interested in polar exploration.
  • University of Cambridge Botanic Garden, founded in 1831


Academic record 


Research 

Cambridge University has faculty and faculty for most subjects, spending £ 650m per year on research. The departments of the university are responsible for conducting all research and curriculum. The member schools provide mentors and hosts group discussions, student accommodation, and extra funding for extracurricular activities. During the 1990s, Cambridge opened many specialized laboratories for research at a number of university locations scattered throughout the city, with the number of laboratories continuing to grow. [sixty seven]

Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group, a network of research universities, the Coimbra Group, the conglomerates of leading European universities, the Alliance for European Studies and the International Union of Universities. Research. Cambridge is part of the "Golden Triangle" - unofficial name for the top universities in the UK: Oxford, Cambridge forms two corners of the triangle, Imperial College London, University College London, London School of Economics, and Kings College London formed the other corner (Imperial College London, formerly affiliated with the University of London , the other three are currently members of the University of London).

Enrollment 

Process 

UCAS accepts enrollment applications in Cambridge, the current deadline is mid-October. Until the 1980s, all applicants had to pass the entrance examination, and only examinations assess your thinking and examination skills Cambridge. The university is considering re-exams for all majors from 2016.

Most candidates are expected to have at least three A-grade A-grades related to the chosen discipline, or at least three scores of 7, 7, 6 for the International Baccalaureate (IB) exam. Grades A * (from 2010) are also considered, with the university's standard for all A * AA courses. Because a large proportion of contestants have high scores, interviews are the process required to select the best people, focusing on factors such as uniqueness in thinking and creativity.

Candidates who have been rejected by their school will be placed on the reserve list for review by other schools.

The selection of graduate students is determined by the faculty or department involved in the chosen coursework.

Kudos 

According to the British government's assessment, in 2001 and 2008, [75] Cambridge was ranked first. In 2005, Cambridge had more PhDs than any other university in England (30% more than Oxford ). [76] A 2006 survey by Thomas Scientific found that the number of research papers from Cambridge was the highest in Britain. [77] Another 2006 study by Evidence found that Cambridge University's subsidy and research contracts accounted for the highest proportion (6.6%) in the UK.

Silicon Fen, also known as the "Cambridge High-Tech Industrial Park, is the world 's second-largest venture capital market, behind Silicon Valley. Estimated in February 2006, there were about 250 newly formed companies directly involved in Cambridge worth $ 6 billion.

University Rankings 

In many charts over the years, Cambridge has always been in the top ranks in the UK and in the world.

[ Current ] position of Cambridge on the college charts in the UK and around the world
On many international charts, Cambridge is among the ten most prestigious universities. According to a QS World University Rankings ranking in conjunction with the Report of the Year 2012, Cambridge held the second place, but two years ago ranked first. Cambridge holds seventh place in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (2012-13). Also in 2012, ARWU ranked this university fifth, while the Guardian newspaper ranked first for Cambridge, surpassing Oxford in majors such as philosophy, law, politics, mathematics, general courses, anthropology, and modern languages.

In 2006, Newsweek compiled elements of the THES-QS and ARWU rankings and other data to assess the "open and diverse" levels of academics, taking the sixth place. Cambridge. In 2008, the Sunday Times University Guide ranked Cambridge for the 11th consecutive year since the rankings were published in 1998. Also in 2008, Cambridge ranked first in 37 of 61 majors including law , medicine , economics , mathematics , engineering , physics , chemistry , and is considered one of the best performing academics in the UK.

According to the Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings in 2009, Cambridge held first or second place in 34 of the 42 subjects, 114 in the general ranking, Cambridge ranked second behind Oxford. Cambridge is also ranked second behind Oxford according to the 2009 Guardian University Guide Rankings.

In 2010, the University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) for Cambridge ranked second in the UK and 11 in the world.

Publishing 

Cambridge University Press is the world's oldest publishing and publishing base and the second-largest university in the world.

Student life 


Upon enrollment, all students at Cambridge are naturally members of the Cambridge University Students' Union - founded in 1964, then the Student Representative Council - with six members.

Sports 

Cambridge has a long tradition of encouraging students to participate in sports and leisure activities. Boat racing is a favorite sport in Cambridge with many competitions among member schools, especially the annual boat race between Cambridge and Oxford. There are also many cricket , rugby , chess and tiddywinks games between these two prestigious schools.

Most of the sports facilities are provided by member schools, but a university sports complex is under construction.

Association 

Many self-directed student associations encourage students to share their passions or interests, and hold regular meetings. By 2012, there were 751 registered registrations in Cambridge. [120] The member schools usually set up their own clubs and sports teams.

Cambridge Union is the largest association of the University of Cambridge, founded in 1815 with the aim of organizing seminars on topics of social interest. Among the celebrities who spoke at Cambridge Union were Winston Churchill , Theodore Roosevelt , Ronald Reagan , Jawaharlal Nehru , Muammar al-Gaddafi , Stephen Hawking , Pamela Anderson , Clint Eastwood .

Most prominent in the drama is the Drama Club and the Footlights comedy club. The University of Cambridge Chamber Orchestra pursues various musical projects , from symphonic symphonies to lesser-known works; A member of the orchestra is a student of the university.

Daily newspapers and radio 

The student press is varied, from the older Varsity (the first edition to be published in 1931) to the younger Cambridge Student (founded in 1999). Both newspapers are competing recently with The Tab (2009), the tabloid newspaper.

With the collaboration of students at Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge students run a radio station, Cam FM, produces weekly shows, comedy , drama , and sports coverage.

Formal Hall and the May Ball 

One of the hallmarks of student life in Cambridge is the ability to attend a dorm at a member school, called Formal Hall , held every semester. Students are expected to dress in formal attire while the lecturer is seated in the high table . The dinner is started and ends with a prayer ritual. There are also evening parties on special occasions such as Christmas or the commemoration of donors.

At the end of the exams, the May Week is the time of the May Ball: full-time parties at the school with food, drinks, and entertainment. The first Sunday of May is usually picnic , barbecue .

Alumni Cambridge 


Over the long history of Cambridge, many of Cambridge's graduates are well known in their fields of study , both academically and socially . About 85 to 88 Nobel Laureates are Cambridge-related figures, among them a total of 61 who have studied here. There are also eight Fields and two Abel Prizes awarded to Cambridge scholars.

Mathematics and Science 

Most prominent is the long tradition and excellence of the university in mathematics and science .

Among the most famous natural philosophers of Cambridge is Sir Isaac Newton , who spent most of his life working at the university and conducting experiments at Trinity College. Sir Francis Bacon , who was responsible for developing the scientific method , entered Cambridge at the age of 12, and pioneering mathematicians such as John Dee and Brook Taylor .

Hardy, Littlewood, and De Morgan are among the most famous mathematicians in contemporary history. Sir Michael Atiyah was one of the most important mathematicians in the lower half of the 20th century; William Oughtred, John Wallis, Srinivasa Ramanujan are big names in mathematics.

In biology , Charles Darwin, who studied at Cambridge, Francis Crick and James Watson , developed a three-dimensional structure of DNA . More recently Sir Ian Wilmut with Dolly the Sheep , the first mammal cloned in 1996. Naturalist David Attenborough graduated from Cambridge, while Jane Goodall , the leading expert on chimpanzees made the thesis. Ph.D. in Darwin College.

Cambridge was also considered the birthplace of computers when mathematician Charles Babbage designed the first computer system in the mid-1800s. Alan Turing went on to invent the fundamentals of modern computer science, then Maurice Wilkes formed the first programmable computer. Webcams are also an invention in Cambridge when scientists want to make sure coffee is available in the dining room without having to leave the lab.

Ernest Rutherford , considered the father of atomic physics , spent most of his life in Cambridge, where he collaborated with Niels Bohr , who discovered the structure and function of atoms, JJ Thomson , a scientist. Exploring electrons , Sir James Chadwick found the neutron . Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton collaborated to find a way to separate atoms. J. Robert Oppenheimer , head of the Manhattan Project for Nuclear Bombs , studied at Cambridge under the tutelage of Rutherford and Thompson.

The astronomer Sir John Herschel , Sir Arthur Eddington , and physicist Paul Dirac once many years teaching at Cambridge; Stephen Hawking has been a math teacher here since 2009. John Polkinghorne was a Cambridge mathematician before becoming Anglican minister , knighted and awarded the Templeton Prize for his contributions to the term. correlation between science and religion.

Among the most famous scientists in Cambridge are Henry Cavendish , the hydrogen discoverer , Frank Whittle , co-inventor of jet engines; Lord Kelvin, William Fox Talbot, Alfred North Whitehead, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, Lord Rayleigh, Georges Lemaitre , and Frederick Sanger , who won two Nobel Prizes.

Humanities, music, art 

In the field of humanities , from the early 16th century, Desiderius Erasmus established disciplines Greek school in Cambridge and taught there for several years. Home Latin School A. E. Housman also taught at Cambridge, although his name is known more as a poet.

Economists from Cambridge include John Maynard Keynes , Thomas Malthus , Alfred Marshall , Milton Friedman, Joan Robinson, Piero Sraffa, and Amartya Sen. Sir Francis Bacon , Bertrand Russell , Ludwig Wittgenstein , Leo Strauss , George Santayana , GEM Anscombe , Sir Karl Popper , Sir Bernard Williams, Allama Iqbal , and GE Moore are Cambridge scholars in the field of philosophy , study Thomas Babington Macaulay ,Frederic William Maitland , Lord Acton , Joseph Needham , EH Carr , Hugh Trevor-Roper , EP Thompson , Eric Hobsbawm , Niall Ferguson and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , Glanville Williams , Sir James Fitzjames Stephen , and Sir Edward Coke .

Well-known religious figures from Cambridge include Justin Welby , Canterbury Superintendent, predecessor Rowan William and many other Canterbury archbishops. William Tyndale , pioneer Bible translator who studied at Cambridge. "Those martyred Oxford" Thomas Cranmer , Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley were from Cambridge (Oxford is the place they were executed). William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson were active in the abolitionist movement , a former Cambridge student. There are also six Templeton Prize winners, the prestigious award for those who have made great contributions to the field of religion.

Composers Ralph Vaughan Williams , Sir Charles Villiers Stanford , William Sterndale Bennett , Orlando Gibbons , and more recently, Alexander Goehr , Thomas Adès and John Rutter all came from Cambridge.

In the field of painting with Quentin Blake , Roger Fry , and Julian Trevelyan , sculpture with Antony Gormley , Marc Quinn , and Sir Anthony Caro , photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones , Sir Cecil Beaton , and Mick Rock are studied in Cambridge.

Literature 

Among the important writers who came from Cambridge included the playwright Elizabeth Christopher Marlowe and his colleague Thomas Nashe and Robert Greene. John Fletcher, a collaborator with Shakespeare in The Two Noble Kinsmen, Henry VIII , and Cardenio , also succeeded Shakespeare to write The King's Men . Writers like WM Thackery, Charles Kingsley, and Samuel Butler. Among the contemporary writers are EM Foster, Rosamond Lehmann, Vladmir Nabokov, Christopher Isherwood, and Malcolm Lowry, author of medieval and religious CS Lewis., physicist and novelist CP Snow. Other names in the field of literature from Cambridge are Patrick White, Iris Murdoch, Eudora Welty, JG Ballard, Sir Kingsley Amis, ER Braithwaite, Douglas Adams, Tom Sharpe, Howard Jacobson, AS Byatt, Sir Salman Rushdie, Nick Hornby, Zadie Smith, Robert Harris, Sebastian Faulks, Michael Crichton, Jin Yon, Julian Fellowes, Stephen Poliakoff, Michael Frayn, Alan Bennett, and Sir Peter Shaffer.

The poets from Cambridge include Edmund Spenser , author of The Faerie Queene , John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell, John Milton, famed for Paradise Lost epics , John Dryden, Thomas Gray, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, AE Housman, more recently Cecil Day-Lewis, Joseph Brodsky, Kathleen Raine, and Geoffrey Hill.

In the field of film, there are actors and directors as Cambridge alumni as Sir Ian McKellen, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Michael Redgrave, James Mason, Emma Thompson , Stephen Fry , Hugh Laurie, John Cleese, Eric Idle, Graham. Chapman, Simon Russell Beale, Tilda Swinson, Thandie Newton , Rachel Weisz , Sacha Baron Cohen, Tom Hiddleston, Eddie Redmayne, Jamie Bamber, Lily Cole, David Mitchell, Mike Newel, Sam Mendes, Stephen Frears, Paul Greengrass, Chris Weitz, and John Madden.

Sports 

Cambridge alumni have won at least 50 medals Olympics . Deng Yaping has six-time table tennis champion, sprinter Harold Abrahams, and George Mallory, the famous climber.

Politics 

Cambridge is considered one of the most eminent schools, and is home to many famous politicians:

15 British Prime Ministers , including Robert Walpole , politicians are considered the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland .

There are at least 23 heads of state such as the Barbados Governor General, the Prime Ministers of India , Singapore , and Jordan .

There are at least nine Kings, Prince Charles , and many other royal figures.

There are three signatories to the United States Declaration of Independence .

Oliver Cromwell , the revolutionary who ruled England from 1653 to 1658.