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Showing posts with label Oxford. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Oxford. Show all posts

Friday, June 15, 2018

University of Oxford - Oxford , England

University of Oxford a university joint research in Oxford , England. Although Oxford's founding date has not been determined, there is evidence that the teaching activity has taken place since 1096. Thus Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world and is the second oldest university in the world. Oxford flourished since 1167 when King Henry IIissued a ban on British students to study at the University of Paris in France. After the controversy between students and residents of Oxford in 1209, some scholars moved to Cambridge , north-east of Oxford, and established an association that would later become the University of Cambridge. These two long-standing British universities are commonly referred to as " Oxbridge ."

University of Oxford - Oxford , England


The University of Oxford is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 member universities and a variety of academic departments organized into four undergraduate faculties . All of these universities are self-governing institutions and are part of the university; Each university controls its membership and is competent in its internal organizational structure as well as its own activities. As a university in the inner city, Oxford did not have a main campus; The buildings and facilities of the university are scattered throughout the city center.

Much of the undergraduate teaching is conducted through weekly study sessions and discussions at member institutions; In addition, there are lectures, lectures, and lab sessions organized by the faculties and faculties of the university. Oxford is home to a number of prestigious scholarships, including the Clarendon Scholarships that have been in operation since 2001 and the Rhodes Scholarship Program for more than a century. Water to study in Oxford. Among Oxford alumni are 27 Nobel laureates , 26 prime ministers , and many heads of state in other countries.

Oxford is a member of the Russell Group of Research Universities in England, the Coimbra Group, the G5 Group, the Federation of Universities for European Studies, and the International Federation of Research Universities, is also a core member. the Europaeum and the "Golden Triangle" (including three leading research universities in England: Cambridge , London , and Oxford) of the British higher education system

History 

The founding of Oxford University has not yet been determined. Although the school taught in 1096, no one was sure when the school was born.

Oxford flourished in 1167 when King Henry II ordered that British students be banned from studying at the University of Paris in France, and that the expulsion of foreigners from the University of Paris led many British scholars to leave France. and to Oxford [ citation needed ] . The historian Gerald of Wales spoke to them in 1188, and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Freisland, came here in 1190. At least 1201 The university is called the Institute. Students are affiliated with each other in the original locale, divided into two "regions", Northern students (including Scottish ones)) and Southern students (including Irish and Welsh ). Members of religious orders such as Franciscan , Carmelite, and Augustinian arrived in Oxford in the 13th century, influencing, and running the dormitories . At this stage, private donors set up member institutions as autonomous academic communities. Among the original donors were William of Durham , in 1249 funding for University College , and John Balliol (Balliol College bearing his name). Another sponsor, Walter de MertonThe British Chancellor, later the Bishop of Rochester, set standards for college life; That way Merton College became a model for funding in Oxford as well as in Cambridge. Since then, more and more students have left the dormitories run by religious orders to live in colleges.

The new academic era of the Renaissance brought a deep impression on Oxford University since the 15th century. Among the scholars of this period were William Grocyn who contributed to the restoration of the study of Hi writing , and John Colet , a talented Bible scholar . The outbreak of the Protestant Reformation was also at a time when the relationship with the Roman Catholic Church was cut off. Disobedient people leave Oxford for continental Europe , mainly focusing on Douai University . The educational method at Oxford was transformed from a medieval academic schoolto the Renaissance education. In 1636, Director General William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, standardized university regulations; Much of the provisions of this statute remained in place until the mid-nineteenth century. Laud was a devotee of functions designed to secure concessions for the University Press, also contributing significantly to The Bodleian Library, the university's main library.

During the British Civil War (1642 - 1649) the university was the center of the royalist party, while the town of Oxford supported the rival Congress. Yet, since the middle of the 10th century, Oxford University has rarely been involved in political disputes.

In 1729, at the Christ Church School, a group of students, led by brothers John and Charles Wesley , came together to look for a more religious way of life by studying the Bible . , and share spiritual experiences; and at the same time engaged in philanthropic work such as visitation of prisoners, and teaching of orphans. The "Holy Club", as they were called at the time, was the predecessor of the Methodist Movement , which has had a profound influence on the Protestant community to this day.

The mid-19th century witnessed the impact of the Oxford Movement (1833-1845), initiated by John Henry Newman (later Cardinal ). The influence of the reform model from German universities to Oxford was studied by such scholars as Edward Bouverie Pusey , Benjamin Jowett , and Max Müller.

In the nineteenth century, many reforms were implemented such as replacing oral questioning in written examinations with a more open attitude towards non-state churches, and establishing four member universities. for women. There were further reforms in the twentieth century, such as the forced extermination of daily worship, not only the pastors who could receive the title of Hebrew teacher , in the tendency to minimize the traditional, and start new courses in science and medicine. Since 1920, the ancient Greek language requirement for admission has been terminated , and the Latin language since 1960.

On the long list of prominent Oxford University alumni there are many prominent people in politics, science, medicine, and English literature. More than 40 Nobel Prizes and more than 50 world leaders have had relationships with Oxford University.

Education for Women 

Since 1875, the university passed a regulation allowing the enrollment of female undergraduates. The four women's founding schools were founded on the active involvement of the Association for Higher Education for Women (AEW). 1878 established Lady Margaret School, 1879 Somverille College; The first 21 female students came to lecture in the upper floors of an Oxford bakery. Then there are the girls' school St Hugh (1886) ) St Hilda (1893), and St. Anne (1952).

Oxford has long been regarded as the stronghold of male privilege, so that until October 7, 1920, students of the new school enjoy full benefits. In 1927, the department decided to limit the number of female students to no more than one quarter of male students, and by 1957 this regulation was canceled. However, before the 1970s, the university maintained a separate education system between male and female schools, and female schools were limited to admission. Only since 1959 did the women's schools get equality.

In 1974 the Brasenose, Jesus, Wadham, Hertford, and St Catherine schools began to recruit female students. In 2008, the only surviving sister school, St Hilda, took male students, ending a long period of sex discrimination in enrollment in Oxford. [30] By 1988, 40% of undergraduates in Oxford were women; This ratio is currently 48/52, men continue to maintain the majority here.

Context for Dorothy Sayers ' detective novel Gaudy Night - Sayers is one of the first women to receive an Oxford degree - took place at a girls' school in Oxford, the issue of educating women is also the heart of the story.

Organization 

As a university with many affiliates, Oxford's organizational structure can be confusing for those unfamiliar with the model. The University looks like a federation of more than forty autonomous universities, but is run by an administrative apparatus headed by a deputy director. Departmental majors are concentrated here; They do not depend on any member school. These faculties provide teaching and research staff, curriculum and instructional materials, conducting studies, presentations, and conferences.

Member schools organize classes for undergraduate students. Faculty faculty members and faculty members are allocated to many member institutions, although some non-interdisciplinary schools such as Nuffield College specialize in social sciences, while most member colleges have Multidisciplinary broad links. Educational facilities such as libraries are available for all levels of education: the central university has the Bodleian Library, each department and department has its own library, such as the English Language Arts Library, At each member school there is a multi-disciplinary library.

Administration 

The official leader of the university is Chancellor , currently Lord Patten of Barnes, although, like almost all British universities, the position of the institute is symbolic, not resolved. daily routine of the school. Convocation members elect a director for a term of office. At first, only graduates with doctoral or master's degrees were admitted to the conference, and later all graduates were members.

The vice-chancellor , incumbent Andrew Hamilton, is actually the head of the university. There are currently five Assistant Deputies in charge of Education, Research, Planning and Resources, Development and External Affairs, Human Resources and Equal Opportunities. The University Board of Trustees is the governing body of the school including the Vice Rector, the faculty members, and other members elected by the Congregation , along with a number of observers from the Federation. member.

The "College of Higher Education", which has 3,700 members, includes academics and university administrators, ultimately responsible for legislative matters: discussion and publish the policies submitted by the University Council. Only Oxford and Cambridge (similarly structured) have such democratic governance.

Oxford University is a public university, receiving government funding, but also a "private university" in the sense that it is fully autonomous, as well as the option to become a private school if it refuses to accept it. money from public funds.

Member School 

There are two types of college campuses: college and hall . Oxford has 38 colleges ( universities ) and 6 Permanent Private Halls (PPH). The difference between college and PPH is that college is run by college commissioners, while PPH is established and continues to be run, at least in part, by the relevant Christian church.) Each member unit has autonomy in terms of personnel, internal structure, and administration

Teaching and Diploma 

At the bachelor level , the curriculum focuses on group lessons, with each group (1-4 students) discussing a topic or solving a thesis. Often there is one or two weekly group discussions under the guidance of the instructor. In addition, there are lectures, classes, and seminars held on a faculty scale. Graduate students are required to attend classes and seminars, although they must spend more time on their own research.

The university organizes examinations and awards degrees. Must pass two rounds of examination is a prerequisite for the first degree. The first session, called Honor Moderations ("Mods" and "Honors Mods") or preliminaries ("Prelims") are usually held at the end of the first year (after two semesters if studied by Law , Theology , Philosophy , Psychology). , or after five semesters if you study classical subjects.

Batch testing Monday, the Final Honor School ( "Finals") held at the end of undergraduate programs (for the humanities and social sciences ) or at the end of each school year after the first year ( mathematics , physics and life sciences , and some social sciences . Based on the results of the final exams, candidates will receive a ranking in the best, best, average, and average, or simply pass the exam. The "average" category accounted for the highest proportion of candidates passing the exam. However, only from the "average" or more to go to graduate programs.

School year 

Each school year has three semesters. The Michaelmas semester lasts from October to December; Hilary semester from January to March; and Trinity Semester from April to June. The formal dress is required when attending examinations, disciplinary meetings, and when students come to university.

Finance 

During the 2005-06 school year, the University earned £ 608m , and member schools earned £ 237m (£ 41m from the university). For the University, the largest contributions came from the national budget (166 million pounds), and research grants (213 million pounds). For member schools, the biggest contribution comes from contributions and interest (£ 82m), and dormitory fees (£ 47m). While the University has a larger operating budget, its affiliates have much larger donations, cumulating up to £ 2.5bn, compared to £ 900m donated to the University.

In May 2008, the University launched a fundraising campaign called Oxford Thinking - The Campaign for the University of Oxford . With the objective of a minimum of 1, 25 billion pounds, a search campaign funding for three areas: the academic programs and the teaching positions and research, student support, construction infrastructure and infrastructure.

Enrollment 


Age 
Oxford does not limit enrollment to bachelor degree. Previously, male freshmen were usually fourteen to nineteen. Jeremy Bentham enrolled in 1761 at the age of thirteen, an exception. Today, the normal age to enter Oxford is seventeen, though most are at the age of eighteen or nineteen. Private Harris College accepts only mature students (over 21 years old). In theory, even if you are young you can still enroll if you meet the entrance requirements. In 1983, Ruth Lawrence became an Oxford student at the age of twelve.

Process 

Like other universities in the UK, applicants to Oxford must apply in accordance with the University Admissions Services (UCAS) system, which is October 15th each year. In order to accurately assess individuals, applicants are not allowed to apply for Oxford and Cambridge in the same year, except for the Organ Scholarship applicants, and the second degree candidates.

Member schools work together to ensure that the best students will gain a place in the University regardless of the school they choose. Approximately 60% of the shortlisted applicants, who will be invited to an interview for three days in December, provide meals and accommodation for the invited guests. Students outside Europe can be interviewed remotely, for example via the Internet . In 2007, faculty members, faculties and departments published a "general framework" that outlines the principles and procedures to be followed.

The offer will be sent shortly before Christmas. Of the four candidates selected, one will be invited to attend a non-applicants school.

For high school graduates, many schools prefer to choose those who have done research with one of the faculty members in the school, the subject will consider before transferring to the school.

The University's Institute of Continuing Education supports older undergraduate students. Most attended Kellogg School, although some schools accepted them.

Educational Facilities 



Library 

Oxford has 102 libraries, of which 30 are belonging to the Bodleian Library chain , the Central Research Library of the University. With more than 11 million books on 120-mile (190 km) bookcases, the Bodleian Library is the second-largest library in the UK, behind the British Library . The Bodleian Library is one of six libraries in the United Kingdom that have archival privileges, ie the right to request all books, journals, journals, and essays published in the UK to submit to the library a publication of that book. Therefore, the book library chain's annual growth rate is more than 3 miles (5 km). Main facilities include the original library at Old Schools Square ( Sir Thomas Bodleyfounded in 1598, opened in 1602), and the Radcliffe Camera, Clarendon, and New Bodleian buildings. A tunnel beneath the Broad Street connects these buildings together. Bodleian library collections include the Bodleian Law Library, the Indian Academic Library, the Radcliffe Science Library, the Eastern Academic Library, and the Vere Harmworth Library of American History.

In October 2010, inauguration of a new bookstore in South Marston, Swindon, and a rebuilding of the New Bodleian building, will be named the new Weston Library inaugurated between 2014-15, to build a gallery of collections of the library (including a collection of Shakespeare plays published in 1623, commonly referred to as First Folio , and the Gutenberg Bible ), as well as other exhibitions.

Oxford's specialized libraries include the Sackler Library, which houses classic collections, and other libraries affiliated to academic committees and member colleges. Almost all of Oxford's libraries share the same catalog, the Oxford Library Information System.

Museum

Besides its massive library system, Oxford also has museums. Ashmolean Museum , founded in 1683, is Britain's oldest museum, also the oldest museum in the world. The museum's holdings are important collections of art and archeology, including works by Michelangelo , Leonardo da Vinci , Turner , and Picasso , and precious objects such as stone Scorpion, Parian Beer, and Treasure Alfred. There are also guitar violin 's neck Stradivarius , " The Messiah ", is considered one of the violin exists finest.

After a £ 49m rebuild , the Ashmolean Museum opened in November 2009 with double occupancy and new amenities.

The Museum of Natural History holds the natural history specimens of the University. Located in a large neo-Gothic building on Parks Road, belonging to the University of Science Park. In the museum's collection there are skeletons of tyrant dinosaurs and tricolor dinosaurs, along with an almost complete collection of dodo birds found anywhere on the site. world.

The Pitt Rivers Museum, founded in 1884, is home to the University's archaeological and archeological collections, which store more than 500,000 artifacts. Many museum staff have been teaching anthropology in Oxford since its inception, when General Augustus Pitt Rivers asked the university to institute anthropology on one of the conditions he offered when contributing to the school. .

Museum of the History of Science in the old building on Broad Street, contains 15,000 artifacts from ancient times to the 20th century, typical for most every aspect of the history of science.

The Faculty of Music is located on St. Aldate Street in Oxford, and holds a Bate collection of western classical instruments from the Middle Ages to the present.

The Botanic Gardens are the oldest botanical garden in England, and the third oldest in the world. More than 90% of the world's plants are found here. The Christ Church Gallery has a collection of more than 200 works by artists before 1800.

Prestige 

On the Times Good University Guide 2008, Oxford was number one in the UK, followed by Cambridge. Oxford was ranked first in the Politics, Physiology, English, Painting, Business, Middle Eastern and African Studies, Music, Philosophy, Linguistics ranks first with Cambridge. Oxford is in Cambridge for 17 other subjects. Oxford has three thirds, one third, and three ranked fourth, fifth, and sixth overall.

Oxford ranked 10th in the world and 2 in Europe in the Academic Ranking of World Universities.

On the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2011, Oxford ranked fourth in the world ( Caltech Number One, Harvard and Stanford in second place), and first in Europe. On the QS World University Rankings 2011, Oxford ranked second behind Cambridge

Famous people 

There are many Oxford ( Oxonian ) alumni famous all over the world:

In the list of British Prime Minister there are people who studied at Oxford as William Gladstone , Herbert Asquith , Clement Attlee , Harold Macmillan , Harold Wilson , Edward Heath , Margaret Thatcher , Tony Blair and former Prime Minister David Cameron .

At least 30 world leaders have benefited from education in Oxford, including Harald V of Norway , Abdullah II of Jordan , three Australian Prime Ministers ( John Gorton , Malcolm Fraser and Bob Hawke ), the two Prime Ministers of Canada ( Lester B. Pearson , and John Turner ), Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Indira Gandhi (though she has not completed all study programs for graduation), year Prime Minister of Pakistan ( Liaquat Ali Khan , Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy , Sir Feroz Khan Noon , Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Benazir Bhutto ), SWRD Bandaranaike (former Prime Minister of Sri Lanka), Norman Washington Manley of Jamaica, Eric Williams (Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago), Álvaro Uribe (former President of Colombia '), Abhisit Vejjajiva (former Prime Minister of Thailand), and Bill Clinton (US President first studied at Oxford; he was Scholarships Rhodes) . Arthur Mutambara (Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe ) is also the Rhodes Scholar. Festus Mogae (former President of Botswana ) was a student at University College .

The Burmese democracy and the Nobel Prize Laureate , Aung San Suu Kyi , studied in St. Louis. Hugh's College. In addition to Aung San Suu Kyi , there are 47 Nobel Laureates who have studied or taught at Oxford.

Oxford is also home to at least 12 saints, and 20 archbishops of Canterbury, including the recently Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams , who studied at Wadham College and became a professor at Christ Church .

Religious reformer John Wycliffe was a scholar and professor at Balliol College . John Colet , Christian humanist, chief scholar of St. Paul's Cathedral , studied at Magdalen College . The Methodist Initiative , John Wesley , studied at Christ Church College and was elected as a trustee of Lincoln College . The Oxford Movement in the Church of England also emanates from here with characters such as John Henry Newman , Edward Bouverie Pusey and John Keble .

Other religious figures are Mirza Nasir Ahmad , the Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Islamic Community, and Shoghi Effendi , one of the leaders of the Baha'i religion .

About 40 Olympic medalists have academic ties with Oxford, including Sir Matthew Pinsent , four gold medals in rowing. TE Lawrence student of Jesus College , in addition to many students of Oxford other outstanding explorer, writer, and poet, Sir Walter Raleigh , (who studied at Oriel College but left school without a degree) and Australian media mogul , Rupert Murdoch.

In the long list of authors with ties to Oxford with John Fowles , Theodor Geisel , Thomas Middleton , Samuel Johnson , Robert Graves , Evelyn Waugh , Lewis Carroll , Aldous Huxley , Oscar Wilde , CS Lewis , JRR Tolkien , Graham Greene , VSNaipaul , Philip Pullman , Joseph Heller , Vikram Seth , the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley ,John Donne , AE Housman , WH Auden , TS Eliot , Wendy Perriam and Philip Larkin , and seven poets award ( Thomas Wharton , Henry James Pye , Robert Southey , Robert Bridges , Cecil Day-Lewis , Sir John Betjeman , and Andrew Motion ).

The economists Adam Smith , Alfred Marshall , EF Schumacher and Amartya Sen , and philosophers Robert Grosseteste , William of Ockham , John Locke , Thomas Hobbes , Jeremy Bentham , and AJ Ayer studied in Oxford. Prominent scientists like Robert Hooke , Stephen Hawking , Richard Dawkins , Frederick Soddy , Tim Berners-Lee , co-inventor of theWorld Wide Web , and Dorothy Hodgkin . Robert Boyle , Albert Einstein , Edwin Hubble , Erwin Schrödinger also studied or worked in Oxford.

Similarly, composers Sir Hubert Parry , George Butterworth , John Taverner , William Walton , James Whitbourn and Andrew Lloyd-Webber each lived in Oxford.

Actor Hugh Grant , Kate Beckinsale , Dudley Moore ,  Michael Palin , and Terry Jones [131] former students bachelor's degrees at the University, also studied at Oxford was Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck , and filmmakers Ken Loach and Richard Curtis , both of whom were awarded Oscars . In the field of sports is also Imran Khan

Oxford in literature and media 

Oxford University is used as a backdrop for many fictional literary works. Since 1400, Chaucer has referred to the "Oxenford student" in Cantebury Tales . In 1989, 533 novels took Oxford as the backdrop, and this number is growing. Among the famous works can Brideshead Revisited since volumes of Evelyn Waugh to His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman .