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Showing posts with label Chicago. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Chicago. Show all posts

Friday, June 15, 2018

University of Chicago - Chicago, Illinois, United States

University Chicago also known as the University of Chicago , is a university study in private Chicago , Illinois , United States. The university was founded by the American Baptist Education Association in 1890 with donations from billionaire John D. Rockefeller . William Rainey Harper became the first president of the university in 1891; The first classes began in 1892.

University of Chicago - Chicago, Illinois, United States


University of Chicago include University ( the College ), graduate programs and various interdisciplinary committees are organized into four faculties , six professional schools, and a school of continuing education. The university has a total of about 15,000 students, of which about 5,000 students study at the University. The University of Chicago has been ranked one of the top 10 universities in the world for years; and was ranked fifth with Stanford University in the "State of the World's Best Colleges Rankings" by the US News & World Report .

Scholars of the University of Chicago have played an important role in the development of various academic areas, including the Chicago School of Economics, the Chicago School of Sociology, the Law and Business Movement the theology of legal analysis, the Chicago literary critique, the Chicago School of Religious Studies, the political science school known as "behavioralism" and in the field of physics where university scientists have created the world's first self-sustaining nuclear reaction. The University of Chicago is also the largest publisher of higher education in the United States, the University of Chicago Press.

The University of Chicago has 89 Nobel Prize winners (10 of whom are faculty members), 15 Rhodes Scholar, and 9 Fields Medalists .

History 


The University of Chicago was founded by the American Baptist Education Association in 1890 as a non-religious educational institution for both men and women, with donations from oil billionaire John D. Rockefeller and built on the land donated by Marshall Field. The university is a legally independent institution; It replaced the Baptist- educated university , which closed in 1886 because of constant financial hardship and crisis. William Rainey Harper became the dean of the university's first modern on July 1, 1891, and the university open to students enrolled on October 1 1892.

The business school was established in 1898, and the law school was established in 1902. Harper died in 1906; following Harper's other three successive chancellors until 1929. During this period, the Oriental Institute was established to support and interpret the archaeological findings of the land. that day was called the Near East.

In the 1890s, fearing that his vast resources would harm smaller schools by attracting the best students, the University of Chicago has affiliated with several colleges and universities in the region: Des Moines, Kalamazoo University, Butler University, and Stetson University. Under the associated agreement, all schools requiring the equivalent of courses at the University of Chicago must notify the college of any appointment or dismissal of the instructor. Appointment of faculty without the consent of the university, and submission of copies of the papers for comments. The University agrees to award any graduating student from the associated school if he or she achieves a grade A throughout the four academic years, and award any graduates with 12 weeks of study at the University. Students or associate professors receive free tuition at the University, and Chicago students are allowed to study at an affiliate school and receive a similar degree and credit. The University also agreed to provide schools with links to books and scientific equipment and instruments at a price; Provides seconded instructors whose affiliates do not have to pay, except for travel expenses; and provides a free copy of a book or magazine published by the University of Chicago Press. This agreement also provides that either party may terminate this association by notifying the other party in accordance with the rules. A number of professors at the University of Chicago at the time disliked this program because of the effort they put off without compensation, and they claimed it lowered the academic reputation of the University of Chicago. This program ended in 1910.

A group of people in suits standing in three rows on the steps in front of a stone building.

The University of Chicago scientists are part of the project to create the world's first self-sustaining nuclear reactor, including Enrico Fermi (top) and Leó Szilárd (second row).
In 1929, the mayor of the university, Robert Maynard Hutchins, began his tenure; The university has undergone many changes during his 24-year term. Hutchins removed rugby from college in an effort to emphasize academics rather than sports, setting up a liberal arts curriculum in higher education. known as the Common Core , and organizes the university's graduate study and research activities into four faculties as of today. In 1933, Hutchins proposed plans to merge the University of Chicago and the Northwestern University into a single university, but this plan was not approved. During his tenure, the University of Chicago Hospital (now called the University of Chicago Medical Center) was completed and began to recruit the first medical students.In addition, the Social Ideology Committee, a prominent campus of the University of Chicago was also established.

The money raised during the 1920s and financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation helped the university survive the Great Depression . During World War II , the university made significant contributions to the Manhattan Project .the University is the first isolation of plutonium and is home to generate nuclear reactions artificial and self-sustaining first, this work by a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi head made in 1942.

In the early 1950s, the number of students applying for fellowship was reduced due to the growing crime and poverty in Hyde Park, which houses the university campus. In return, the university became the main sponsor of a controversial urban renewal project in Hyde Park, which had a significant impact on the architecture and traffic flow in the area.

The University of Chicago also experienced a student-related turbulence in the 1960s, beginning in 1962 when students took over Director George Beadle's office to protest the university's tenancy policy. outside the campus. In 1969, more than 400 students, angry at a famous professor, Marlene Dixon, were fired, took over the Administration Building for two weeks. After the sit-down was over, and when Dixon refused a one-year reappointment decision, 42 students were expelled and 81 students were disciplined. This was the harshest response for student occupations at any U.S. institution during the student movement.

In 1978, Hanna Holborn Gray, then deputy academic director and acting director of Yale , became president of the University of Chicago. She held this office for 15 years.

In 1999, then-president Hugo Sonnenschein announced plans to relax the university 's core curriculum, reducing the number of compulsory courses from 21 to 15. When The New York Times , The Economist , and other major newspapers reported on it, the university became the focus of a nationwide debate on education. The last change was made, but the controversy played a role in Sonnenschein's resignation decision in 2000.

In the past decade, the university has started a number of expansion projects. In 2008, the University of Chicago announced plans to set up the Milton Friedman Institute; This project draws both support and controversy from both faculty and students. This institute would cost about $ 200 million and occupy the buildings of the Chicago Theological Seminary. In the same year, investor David G. Booth donated $ 300 million to the university's Booth Business School; This is the largest donation in university history and the largest donation to a business school. In 2009, the design or construction of some new buildings was completed, half of which cost less than $ 100 million.

Since 2009, a $ 2 billion fundraising campaign has significantly expanded the campus, with the inauguration of the Max Palevsky Condominium, South Campus, Gerald Ratner Sports Center, a new hospital, and a new building for science. Since 2011, major construction projects include the Jules & Gwen Knapp Biomedical Initiative Center, a 10-story medical research center, and buildings added to the medical facilities of the University Medical Center. Study Chicago.

Campus 

A corner of the University of Chicago campus, viewed from the roof of a college building and facing the north. The far right is Lake Michigan of the Great Lakes .

Academic 

Academic, University of Chicago include University ( the College , specializing in education undergraduate), four faculty research postgraduate (Faculty of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty Six professional schools (Medical School, Business School, Law School, School of Theology, School of Public Policy Research, and School of Social Services) , and the Graduate School of Continuing Professional and Professional Studies . The university also has a library system , the University of Chicago Press , the University of Chicago School of Experimentation (University of Chicago Laboratory School , for kindergarten to high school classes), and the University of Chicago Medical Center , and are closely associated with a number of academic institutions. up, including Fermilab and Laboratory Argonne National ( Argonne National Laboratory ).

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