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University of Cambridge - Top 2 universities in the world

University of Cambridge a university public research complexes in Cambridge , England.

Showing posts with label Cambridge. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Cambridge. Show all posts

Friday, June 15, 2018

University of Cambridge - Trinity Ln, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England

University of Cambridge a university public research complexes in Cambridge , England . Founded in 1209, Cambridge is the second oldest institution in the English-speaking world, behind only the University of Oxford , and the fourth oldest in the world. Cambridge formed from a group of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute between them and local residents. These two "ancient universities" have many similarities and are often referred to by their common name " Oxbridge ".



Cambridge is made up of a variety of institutions, including 31 university affiliates and more than 100 academic departments organized into six schools . The buildings of the university are located throughout the city, many of which are of historic value. These universities are self-governing institutions, established as constituents of universities. By 2014, the university had a combined income of £ 1.51 billion , of which £ 371 million was from research contracts and grants. The university and its affiliates have a total of £ 4.9 billion in donations, the largest number in any university outside of the United States . Cambridge is a member of many associations and is part of the "Golden Triangle" - the top three universities in the UK: Cambridge, London , and Oxford .

Cambridge students attend lectures and lab sessions organized by departments under the supervision of the university. Cambridge runs eight museums of art, culture, and science, including the Fitzwilliam Museum and a botanical garden. The Cambridge library has a total of about 15 million books. Cambridge University Press, part of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the world's second largest publisher run by a university. Cambridge is regularly ranked as one of the leading universities in the world rankings.

Cambridge has many well-known alumni, including some outstanding mathematicians, scientists, and politicians; The 90 Nobel laureates are members of Cambridge. Throughout its history, the university has been described in many literary and artistic works by many authors including Geoffrey Chaucer , EM Forster, and CP Snow.

History 


Traceable time formally established the University of Cambridge to the year 1231 when King Henry III of England issued certificates accredited school with the same rights as ius non trahi extra (right to discipline members of the Council) and Tax exemptions, followed by a 1233 edict by Pope Gregory IX, allow graduates from Cambridge to be "taught everywhere in the Christian world ." [12] After the Pope Nicholas IV described Cambridge as a studium generale (institution multi-brand, have master's degrees, and draws students from many countries) in a letter in 1290, [13 ]This title is confirmed by a 1318th edict by Pope John XXII , [14] which attracts many scholars from universities across Europe for study and teaching. [13]

Establishment of member schools 

Chapel of King's College. Old Court of Clare College is on the left. Below is the Cam River .
The university ( college ), a member of the University of Cambridge are the institutions complement system. There is no such institution as the university itself.

Hugh Balsham , Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse in 1284, the first Cambridge school. Many other member schools were established in the 14th and 15th centuries, and continue to appear throughout the centuries until recently, despite a 204-year gap between the founding of Sidney Sussex (1596) ) and Downing College (1800). The newest member is Robinson, built in the 1970s. However, Homerton, due to be recognized as a member school in March 2010, is considered the newest member school.

In the Middle Ages , many member schools were formed for the sole purpose of praying for the souls of the founders, thus linking them closely to the chapels or monasteries. When the Monastic Discipline Code was enacted in 1536, the goal of membership was changed. King Henry VIII ordered the university to dissolve the Faculty of Law of the Church and ceased teaching "scholastic philosophy". Membership begins with changing curricula, church law, and focus on theology, the Bible , and mathematics .

Leaving the Church Law, Cambridge also left Catholicism . From 1520, Luther's theology and Protestant Reformation began to appear in university curricula, with contributions by people like Thomas Cranmer , later Archbishop of Canterbury. In the 1930s, Henry VIII asked Cranmer and other scholars to outline a new direction not only of Catholic doctrine but of Martin Luther thought .

Nearly a century later, the university became the focus of a schism within the Protestant community . Many aristocrats, intellectuals, and ordinary people find the Church of England has become too Catholic and is being used by the king to seize the power of the counties. While East Anglia is a stronghold of the Puritan movement , in Cambridge, the schools of Emmanuel, St Catherine's Hall, Sidney Sussex, and Christ's College hold the same role. These colleges have trained many graduates pursuing an independent position with the state religion. Due to their social status and persuasion, they have a lot of influence on society. About 20 000 Puritans came to the areaNew England founded the Massachusetts Bay Settlements during the historic exodus of the 1630s. Oliver Cromwell , commander in the British Civil War during the British Civil War and leader of the Commonwealth (1649 - 1660) Studying in Sidney Sussex.

Mathematics and Mathematical Physics 

The one-time math test is a compulsory exam for all students wishing to take a bachelor's degree, the lowest in Cambridge for general and scientific sciences. From the time of Isaac Newton in the late 17th century to the mid-19th century, the university was especially interested in applied mathematics, especially mathematical physics (developing mathematical methods applied in physics). This is also called Tripos . The student is awarded an honorary degree after passing the mathematical Tripos exam, known as the Wrangler , the Senior Wrangler . Due to its highly competitive nature, the Tripos Mathematics program at Cambridge has helped create big names in English science, includingJames Clerk Maxwell , Lord Kelvin , and Lord Rayleigh . However, some well-known alumni like GH Hardy do not like this system, they feel too focused on the scores in the exams without regard to the subject.

Pure mathematics at Cambridge achieved much in the 19th century but ignored the fundamental developments of French and German mathematics . The pure mathematical study at Cambridge achieved the highest international standard in the early 20th century thanks to the work of GH Hardy and his partner JE Littlewood. In geometry, WVD Hodge helped Cambridge integrate internationally in the 1930s.

Despite its diverse work in research and teaching, Cambridge to this day still retains its strength in mathematics. The Cambridge alumni won six Fields medals and a Mathematical Abel Prize , while recipients representing Cambridge won four Fields medals. The university also offers the Advanced Diploma in Mathematics.

Contemporary 

Trinity Road in the Snow, with King's College Chapel (middle), Clare College Chapel (right), and Old Schools (left)

After the University of Cambridge Act of 1856 formalized the institution of the university, subjects such as theology, history, and contemporary language were included in the curriculum. [20] Trinity College's Richard Fitzwilliam has donated many materials for new courses in art, architecture, and archeology. [21] From 1896 1902, Downing College sold part of the land to provide construction funds Downing Site area includes laboratories for anatomy, genetics, and earth sciences. [22] During this period, the New Museums Site was built, including the Cavendish Laboratory, later moved to the West Cambridge Site, and other departments of chemistry and medicine.

World War I disrupted the school's operations when 14,000 members were killed, of whom 2,470 were killed.

After the Second World War , the university witnessed a period of rapid growth both in the number of students and in the location of study; This is due to the accomplishments and reputation of many scientists from Cambridge.

Contribute to science 

The Cambridge alumni have made a number of important contributions


  • Discovering the Laws of Motion , and Integral - Sir Isaac Newton
  • Hydrogen discovery - Henry Cavendish
  • Basic contributions to thermodynamics - Lord Kelvin
  • Systematics of electromagnetism - James Clerk Maxwell
  • Finding Electronic - JJ Thomson
  • Finding Nuclear Nuclear - Ernest Rutherford
  • Find the theory of evolution by natural selection - Charles Darwin
  • Fundamental contributions to Darwin's theory of evolution and to Mendel's genetics - Ronald Fisher
  • Computerization of Computer Theory - Alan Turing
  • Finding Double DNA Helix - Francis Crick and James D. Watson
  • Fundamental Contribution to Quantum Mechanics - Paul Dirac
  • Fundamental contribution to cosmology - Stephen Hawking
  • Fundamental Contribution to String Theory - Michael Green


Education for women 

At first only men were allowed to attend Cambridge. Girton College was founded in 1869 by Emily Davies, three years later Newham College (founded by Anne Clough and Henry Sidgwick), and Hughes Hall in 1885 (Elizabeth Phillips). Hughes founded, New Hall (later renamed Murray Edwards College) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965. Students were allowed to take the examinations from 1882, but by 1948 the status of the student was new. full recognition. [26]

Because traditional member schools do not accept women, they can only apply to schools for girls. However, between 1972 and 1988, three Churchill, Clare, and King's schools began to accept female students, and other schools followed suit. By contrast, when a girls 'school, Girton, began receiving male students in 1979, other girls' schools did not follow Girton. In 2008, when St Hilda's College of Oxford dropped the ban on male admissions, Cambridge is the only university in the UK to retain its affiliates who refuse to accept male students such as Newham, Murray Edwards, and Lucy Cavendish.

During the 2004-5 school year, the sex ratio among students was 52% male and 48% female. [29]

Location 

The university is located in the center of Cambridge with a significant proportion of students (nearly 20%). [30] Most of the members older than occupy positions adjacent to the city center and the River Cam , on this river long people still sail to contemplate the beauty of the natural landscape and the architecture. [thirty first]


Education Department

The university is divided into areas where different departments are located. The main areas are:


  • Addenbrooke's
  • Downing Site
  • Madingley / Girton
  • New Museums Site
  • Old Addenbroke's
  • Old Schools
  • Silver Street / Mill Lane
  • Sidgwick Site
  • West Cambridge


The College's Clinical Medical Clinic is affiliated with Addenbrooke Hospital, where students spend three years practicing their bachelor's degree, 32 while West Cambridge is extensively expanded. develop sports. In addition, the Judge Business School on Trumpington Road since 1990 provides management courses and is regularly listed by the Financial Times in the top 20 business schools in the world.

Due to the location of the adjacent areas, thanks to the relatively flat terrain of Cambridge, the preferred means of transportation is the bicycle : one in five trips in town is by bicycle.

The school and town 

The relationship between the university and the town is not always smooth. The term Town and Gown is used to distinguish Cambridge residents from college students, often dressed in uniforms. There have been many stories of fierce competition between the school and the town: in 1381 there were violent clashes that led to the attacks and the looting of university property, when local people challenged the governmental grants to the faculty. Shortly thereafter, the director was given special powers to try crimes and restore order in the city.

Attempts were made to reconcile between the two groups, and by the 16th century, agreements had been reached to upgrade the streets and student residences around the city. However, when an epidemic struck the city in 1630, conflict broke out when member schools refused to help ill people by shutting down school sites.

Today, disputes have subsided, and the university has become a source of employment for local people and has helped to raise the standard of living in the area. The strong growth in the number of high tech service providers, biotechnology, and related enterprises is located near the city called the Cambridge Phenomenon: from 1960 to 2010 there were an additional 1,500 new companies with 40 000 jobs directly related to the presence and importance of this institution.

Organization 

Cambridge is a college-type university with a number of membership institutions, meaning that the university is made up of independent and autonomous membership schools, each with its own assets and income. Most member colleges gather faculty and students from a variety of disciplines, each with its own faculty, school or department, but all belong to the university.

The faculties, under the supervision of the Board of Trustees, are responsible for organizing teaching, opening seminars, study guides and course orientation. The Board of Governors and the central administration, led by the Deputy Director, form the University of Cambridge. Educational facilities such as the library are provided at all levels: at the university (Cambridge University Library), at faculties (faculty libraries such as the Squire Law Library), and at the member school ( Each member school has a multi-disciplinary library with the main objective of serving undergraduate students.

Member School 

Member institutions - autonomous institutions with their own property and self-advocacy - are considered part of the university. All students and most faculty members are affiliated with a member school. The key facets of the member institutions are the availability of facilities, welfare, social functions, and curricula for undergraduate students. All faculties, departments, research centers, and libraries are affiliated to the university, which provides courses and degrees, particularly the organization of undergraduate programs into small groups. Instructors - not just a single student - are practiced in member schools. The faculty members themselves are appointed faculty, who are also members of the faculty of the university.

Cambridge has 31 member schools, including three for women: Murray Edwards, Newham, and Lucy Cavendish. Other boys and girls attend school, although they were mostly male. Darwin was the first school to receive both men and women, while Churchill, Clare, and King's were all male until 1972. It was not until 1988 that Magdalene accepted the female student body, and was the last school to receive women. Clare Hall and Darwin only provide graduate training, while Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund's, and Wolfson accepts adults only (enrollment age is 21 or older), both undergraduate and graduate. . The remaining schools offer undergraduate and graduate programs without an age limit.

Not all member schools offer the full range of disciplines, some of which choose to train in a number of disciplines such as architecture , art history , or theology , but most of them are multidisciplinary. Some schools favor certain subjects, such as the Churchill School of Science and Technology. King's students are renowned for their left-leaning political attitudes, while those attending Robinson or Churchill School are known for their efforts to minimize environmental harm.

Accommodation expenses as well as the cost of studying in Cambridge vary, depending on each member school.

There are also theological schools in Cambridge but linked to lower-level institutions such as Wescott House, Westminster College and Ridley Hall.

School, Faculty, and Board 

In addition to the 31 member institutions, the university also has 150 departments, faculties, institutions, and other institutions. Members of these institutions are also members of member institutions; They are responsible for running the entire academic program of the university.

A "School" of Cambridge University is a collection of related departments and other units. Each school establishes a governing board through an election - called the "Board" of the school - including representatives of the constituent units. There are six schools in Cambridge:


  • Arts and Humanities
  • Biological Sciences
  • Clinical medicine
  • Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Physical Science
  • Technology


Departments are responsible for organizing teaching and research. There are also a few units called "Syndicate" that also support teaching and research functions such as Cambridge Assessment, University Press, and the University Library.

Administration 

The term of office of the Chancellor, not limited to tenure and ritual only, is now occupied by David Sainsbury, Baroness of Sainsbury of Turville, after the Duchy of Edinburg (Queen Elizabeth II ) retired on his 90th birthday in June 2011.

In addition to Lord Sainsbury, Abdul Arain, owner of a grocery store, Brian Blessed, actor, and Michael Mansfield, a lawyer, were also nominated for this position. The election took place on October 14 and 15, 2011. David Sainsbury won 2 839 out of 5 888 votes, first.

The current Deputy Director of Leszek Borysiewics, a Polish-English immunologist, begins his seven-year term as of October 1, 2010. Unlike the director, the deputy director is in fact a leader. university. Most of the board members are from the university.

Senate and Regent House 

All those who have a Master's Degree or above are members of the Senate , have the right to elect the Director and High Steward , as well as elect two members of the British Parliament until the Charter of the University of Cambridge canceled in 1950.

Prior to 1926, the Senate was the governing body of the university, functioning today as Regent House . The Regent House is the governing body of the university, including all important members working at the university and member institutions, the High Steward, Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary.

School year 

There are three semesters for each academic year: the Michalelmas semester begins in October and ends in December; Lent semester from January to March; and the Easter Semester from April to June.


Senate House is lit in the 800th anniversary of the founding of Cambridge University
Course lengths of the bachelor program last for eight weeks per semester. According to the regulations of the university, all students must reside within 10 miles of St Mary the Great Cathedral. Students will only be awarded a bachelor's degree if they comply with this requirement for nine semesters (three years), for a master's degree in science, engineering, or mathematics in 12 semesters.

Cambridge semesters are shorter compared to many other UK universities. [58] Students must also prepare their notebooks for three holiday periods (Christmas, Easter, and winter holidays).

Teaching 

The departments of the university are responsible for holding lectures while the member institutions hold conferences. The science has more lab practice, also within the responsibility of the board. During the discussions, students are divided into small groups (usually one to three people) discussing under the guidance of a teacher or a graduate student.

Often students are asked to carefully prepare the content they will discuss with the teacher as well as present the difficulties they encounter with their classroom lectures. Assignments are usually an essay on a selected teacher topic, or an issue a teacher has mentioned in class. Depending on the subject and the member school, students may have one to four sessions per week.

Finance 

So far, Cambridge is the richest university, not only in the UK but across Europe , with contributions up to £ 4.3bn in 2011,  of which about 1.6 Directly to the university and $ 2.7 billion to the member institutions (also in 2011, Oxford had only about £ 3.3 billion). The university's operating budget exceeds £ 1 billion a year. Each member school is an independent institution, which has its own donations. Compared to universities in the United States , Cambridge occupies fifth place among the eight Ivy League academies , and the eleventh of all universities in the United States, although this comparison is rather lame because Cambridge is a subsidy from the national budget. Much of Cambridge's income comes from scholarships and research and scholarships provided by the UK government. Another benefit comes from the activities of Cambridge University Press.

In 2000, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation donated $ 210 million through the Gates Scholarship Program to students from outside the UK to pursue graduate study at Cambridge.

2000 when the 800th Anniversary of the Cambridge Campaign was launched with the goal of raising £ 1bn in funding for the year 2012 - the first American-style fundraising campaign to be run in Europe - just in 2009-10, Donations amounted to 1.037 billion.

Collection 


Library 

The university has 114 libraries . [65] The University of Cambridge Library is the central research library, which houses 8 million books, and has the right to request a free edition of each book in the UK and Ireland .
In addition to the central library and its facilities, each department has a specialized library, such as the Seely History Library of the History Faculty, which has more than 100,000 books currently stored there. In addition, each member school has its own library with the goal of serving college students. School members often own many ancient books and manuscripts in separate libraries. The Wren Library of Trinity College has over 200,000 books published before 1800, while the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College owns one of the largest collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, with more than 600 copies. .

Museums 

The University of Cambridge runs eight museums of art, culture, and science, and a botanical garden:


  • Fitzwilliam Museum of Art and Antiques
  • Kettle's Yard Contemporary Art Museum
  • The Archeology and Anthropology Museum, Cambridge University hosts collections of local artifacts and artefacts from archeology and ethnology from around the world.
  • The Zoological Museum has many animal species from around the world known for its whale skeleton. The museum also has categories collected by Charles Darwin
  • Museum of Classical Archeology, Cambridge
  • Whipple Museum of History of Science
  • Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences
  • Polar Museum, Polar Research Center, honors Captain Scott and members of the expedition, as well as interested in polar exploration.
  • University of Cambridge Botanic Garden, founded in 1831


Academic record 


Research 

Cambridge University has faculty and faculty for most subjects, spending £ 650m per year on research. The departments of the university are responsible for conducting all research and curriculum. The member schools provide mentors and hosts group discussions, student accommodation, and extra funding for extracurricular activities. During the 1990s, Cambridge opened many specialized laboratories for research at a number of university locations scattered throughout the city, with the number of laboratories continuing to grow. [sixty seven]

Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group, a network of research universities, the Coimbra Group, the conglomerates of leading European universities, the Alliance for European Studies and the International Union of Universities. Research. Cambridge is part of the "Golden Triangle" - unofficial name for the top universities in the UK: Oxford, Cambridge forms two corners of the triangle, Imperial College London, University College London, London School of Economics, and Kings College London formed the other corner (Imperial College London, formerly affiliated with the University of London , the other three are currently members of the University of London).

Enrollment 

Process 

UCAS accepts enrollment applications in Cambridge, the current deadline is mid-October. Until the 1980s, all applicants had to pass the entrance examination, and only examinations assess your thinking and examination skills Cambridge. The university is considering re-exams for all majors from 2016.

Most candidates are expected to have at least three A-grade A-grades related to the chosen discipline, or at least three scores of 7, 7, 6 for the International Baccalaureate (IB) exam. Grades A * (from 2010) are also considered, with the university's standard for all A * AA courses. Because a large proportion of contestants have high scores, interviews are the process required to select the best people, focusing on factors such as uniqueness in thinking and creativity.

Candidates who have been rejected by their school will be placed on the reserve list for review by other schools.

The selection of graduate students is determined by the faculty or department involved in the chosen coursework.

Kudos 

According to the British government's assessment, in 2001 and 2008, [75] Cambridge was ranked first. In 2005, Cambridge had more PhDs than any other university in England (30% more than Oxford ). [76] A 2006 survey by Thomas Scientific found that the number of research papers from Cambridge was the highest in Britain. [77] Another 2006 study by Evidence found that Cambridge University's subsidy and research contracts accounted for the highest proportion (6.6%) in the UK.

Silicon Fen, also known as the "Cambridge High-Tech Industrial Park, is the world 's second-largest venture capital market, behind Silicon Valley. Estimated in February 2006, there were about 250 newly formed companies directly involved in Cambridge worth $ 6 billion.

University Rankings 

In many charts over the years, Cambridge has always been in the top ranks in the UK and in the world.

[ Current ] position of Cambridge on the college charts in the UK and around the world
On many international charts, Cambridge is among the ten most prestigious universities. According to a QS World University Rankings ranking in conjunction with the Report of the Year 2012, Cambridge held the second place, but two years ago ranked first. Cambridge holds seventh place in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (2012-13). Also in 2012, ARWU ranked this university fifth, while the Guardian newspaper ranked first for Cambridge, surpassing Oxford in majors such as philosophy, law, politics, mathematics, general courses, anthropology, and modern languages.

In 2006, Newsweek compiled elements of the THES-QS and ARWU rankings and other data to assess the "open and diverse" levels of academics, taking the sixth place. Cambridge. In 2008, the Sunday Times University Guide ranked Cambridge for the 11th consecutive year since the rankings were published in 1998. Also in 2008, Cambridge ranked first in 37 of 61 majors including law , medicine , economics , mathematics , engineering , physics , chemistry , and is considered one of the best performing academics in the UK.

According to the Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings in 2009, Cambridge held first or second place in 34 of the 42 subjects, 114 in the general ranking, Cambridge ranked second behind Oxford. Cambridge is also ranked second behind Oxford according to the 2009 Guardian University Guide Rankings.

In 2010, the University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) for Cambridge ranked second in the UK and 11 in the world.

Publishing 

Cambridge University Press is the world's oldest publishing and publishing base and the second-largest university in the world.

Student life 


Upon enrollment, all students at Cambridge are naturally members of the Cambridge University Students' Union - founded in 1964, then the Student Representative Council - with six members.

Sports 

Cambridge has a long tradition of encouraging students to participate in sports and leisure activities. Boat racing is a favorite sport in Cambridge with many competitions among member schools, especially the annual boat race between Cambridge and Oxford. There are also many cricket , rugby , chess and tiddywinks games between these two prestigious schools.

Most of the sports facilities are provided by member schools, but a university sports complex is under construction.

Association 

Many self-directed student associations encourage students to share their passions or interests, and hold regular meetings. By 2012, there were 751 registered registrations in Cambridge. [120] The member schools usually set up their own clubs and sports teams.

Cambridge Union is the largest association of the University of Cambridge, founded in 1815 with the aim of organizing seminars on topics of social interest. Among the celebrities who spoke at Cambridge Union were Winston Churchill , Theodore Roosevelt , Ronald Reagan , Jawaharlal Nehru , Muammar al-Gaddafi , Stephen Hawking , Pamela Anderson , Clint Eastwood .

Most prominent in the drama is the Drama Club and the Footlights comedy club. The University of Cambridge Chamber Orchestra pursues various musical projects , from symphonic symphonies to lesser-known works; A member of the orchestra is a student of the university.

Daily newspapers and radio 

The student press is varied, from the older Varsity (the first edition to be published in 1931) to the younger Cambridge Student (founded in 1999). Both newspapers are competing recently with The Tab (2009), the tabloid newspaper.

With the collaboration of students at Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge students run a radio station, Cam FM, produces weekly shows, comedy , drama , and sports coverage.

Formal Hall and the May Ball 

One of the hallmarks of student life in Cambridge is the ability to attend a dorm at a member school, called Formal Hall , held every semester. Students are expected to dress in formal attire while the lecturer is seated in the high table . The dinner is started and ends with a prayer ritual. There are also evening parties on special occasions such as Christmas or the commemoration of donors.

At the end of the exams, the May Week is the time of the May Ball: full-time parties at the school with food, drinks, and entertainment. The first Sunday of May is usually picnic , barbecue .

Alumni Cambridge 


Over the long history of Cambridge, many of Cambridge's graduates are well known in their fields of study , both academically and socially . About 85 to 88 Nobel Laureates are Cambridge-related figures, among them a total of 61 who have studied here. There are also eight Fields and two Abel Prizes awarded to Cambridge scholars.

Mathematics and Science 

Most prominent is the long tradition and excellence of the university in mathematics and science .

Among the most famous natural philosophers of Cambridge is Sir Isaac Newton , who spent most of his life working at the university and conducting experiments at Trinity College. Sir Francis Bacon , who was responsible for developing the scientific method , entered Cambridge at the age of 12, and pioneering mathematicians such as John Dee and Brook Taylor .

Hardy, Littlewood, and De Morgan are among the most famous mathematicians in contemporary history. Sir Michael Atiyah was one of the most important mathematicians in the lower half of the 20th century; William Oughtred, John Wallis, Srinivasa Ramanujan are big names in mathematics.

In biology , Charles Darwin, who studied at Cambridge, Francis Crick and James Watson , developed a three-dimensional structure of DNA . More recently Sir Ian Wilmut with Dolly the Sheep , the first mammal cloned in 1996. Naturalist David Attenborough graduated from Cambridge, while Jane Goodall , the leading expert on chimpanzees made the thesis. Ph.D. in Darwin College.

Cambridge was also considered the birthplace of computers when mathematician Charles Babbage designed the first computer system in the mid-1800s. Alan Turing went on to invent the fundamentals of modern computer science, then Maurice Wilkes formed the first programmable computer. Webcams are also an invention in Cambridge when scientists want to make sure coffee is available in the dining room without having to leave the lab.

Ernest Rutherford , considered the father of atomic physics , spent most of his life in Cambridge, where he collaborated with Niels Bohr , who discovered the structure and function of atoms, JJ Thomson , a scientist. Exploring electrons , Sir James Chadwick found the neutron . Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton collaborated to find a way to separate atoms. J. Robert Oppenheimer , head of the Manhattan Project for Nuclear Bombs , studied at Cambridge under the tutelage of Rutherford and Thompson.

The astronomer Sir John Herschel , Sir Arthur Eddington , and physicist Paul Dirac once many years teaching at Cambridge; Stephen Hawking has been a math teacher here since 2009. John Polkinghorne was a Cambridge mathematician before becoming Anglican minister , knighted and awarded the Templeton Prize for his contributions to the term. correlation between science and religion.

Among the most famous scientists in Cambridge are Henry Cavendish , the hydrogen discoverer , Frank Whittle , co-inventor of jet engines; Lord Kelvin, William Fox Talbot, Alfred North Whitehead, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, Lord Rayleigh, Georges Lemaitre , and Frederick Sanger , who won two Nobel Prizes.

Humanities, music, art 

In the field of humanities , from the early 16th century, Desiderius Erasmus established disciplines Greek school in Cambridge and taught there for several years. Home Latin School A. E. Housman also taught at Cambridge, although his name is known more as a poet.

Economists from Cambridge include John Maynard Keynes , Thomas Malthus , Alfred Marshall , Milton Friedman, Joan Robinson, Piero Sraffa, and Amartya Sen. Sir Francis Bacon , Bertrand Russell , Ludwig Wittgenstein , Leo Strauss , George Santayana , GEM Anscombe , Sir Karl Popper , Sir Bernard Williams, Allama Iqbal , and GE Moore are Cambridge scholars in the field of philosophy , study Thomas Babington Macaulay ,Frederic William Maitland , Lord Acton , Joseph Needham , EH Carr , Hugh Trevor-Roper , EP Thompson , Eric Hobsbawm , Niall Ferguson and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. , Glanville Williams , Sir James Fitzjames Stephen , and Sir Edward Coke .

Well-known religious figures from Cambridge include Justin Welby , Canterbury Superintendent, predecessor Rowan William and many other Canterbury archbishops. William Tyndale , pioneer Bible translator who studied at Cambridge. "Those martyred Oxford" Thomas Cranmer , Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley were from Cambridge (Oxford is the place they were executed). William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson were active in the abolitionist movement , a former Cambridge student. There are also six Templeton Prize winners, the prestigious award for those who have made great contributions to the field of religion.

Composers Ralph Vaughan Williams , Sir Charles Villiers Stanford , William Sterndale Bennett , Orlando Gibbons , and more recently, Alexander Goehr , Thomas Ad├Ęs and John Rutter all came from Cambridge.

In the field of painting with Quentin Blake , Roger Fry , and Julian Trevelyan , sculpture with Antony Gormley , Marc Quinn , and Sir Anthony Caro , photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones , Sir Cecil Beaton , and Mick Rock are studied in Cambridge.

Literature 

Among the important writers who came from Cambridge included the playwright Elizabeth Christopher Marlowe and his colleague Thomas Nashe and Robert Greene. John Fletcher, a collaborator with Shakespeare in The Two Noble Kinsmen, Henry VIII , and Cardenio , also succeeded Shakespeare to write The King's Men . Writers like WM Thackery, Charles Kingsley, and Samuel Butler. Among the contemporary writers are EM Foster, Rosamond Lehmann, Vladmir Nabokov, Christopher Isherwood, and Malcolm Lowry, author of medieval and religious CS Lewis., physicist and novelist CP Snow. Other names in the field of literature from Cambridge are Patrick White, Iris Murdoch, Eudora Welty, JG Ballard, Sir Kingsley Amis, ER Braithwaite, Douglas Adams, Tom Sharpe, Howard Jacobson, AS Byatt, Sir Salman Rushdie, Nick Hornby, Zadie Smith, Robert Harris, Sebastian Faulks, Michael Crichton, Jin Yon, Julian Fellowes, Stephen Poliakoff, Michael Frayn, Alan Bennett, and Sir Peter Shaffer.

The poets from Cambridge include Edmund Spenser , author of The Faerie Queene , John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell, John Milton, famed for Paradise Lost epics , John Dryden, Thomas Gray, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, AE Housman, more recently Cecil Day-Lewis, Joseph Brodsky, Kathleen Raine, and Geoffrey Hill.

In the field of film, there are actors and directors as Cambridge alumni as Sir Ian McKellen, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Michael Redgrave, James Mason, Emma Thompson , Stephen Fry , Hugh Laurie, John Cleese, Eric Idle, Graham. Chapman, Simon Russell Beale, Tilda Swinson, Thandie Newton , Rachel Weisz , Sacha Baron Cohen, Tom Hiddleston, Eddie Redmayne, Jamie Bamber, Lily Cole, David Mitchell, Mike Newel, Sam Mendes, Stephen Frears, Paul Greengrass, Chris Weitz, and John Madden.

Sports 

Cambridge alumni have won at least 50 medals Olympics . Deng Yaping has six-time table tennis champion, sprinter Harold Abrahams, and George Mallory, the famous climber.

Politics 

Cambridge is considered one of the most eminent schools, and is home to many famous politicians:

15 British Prime Ministers , including Robert Walpole , politicians are considered the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland .

There are at least 23 heads of state such as the Barbados Governor General, the Prime Ministers of India , Singapore , and Jordan .

There are at least nine Kings, Prince Charles , and many other royal figures.

There are three signatories to the United States Declaration of Independence .

Oliver Cromwell , the revolutionary who ruled England from 1653 to 1658.