Friday, June 15, 2018

Harvard University - Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Harvard University is a university research and private, member of the Ivy League , in Cambridge, Massachusetts , United States. With history, influence, and wealth, Harvard is one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

Founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts Bay Area Legislature and shortly after named John Harvard, who donated the school's wealth, Harvard is the oldest institution in the United States. Although never formally affiliated with any of the denominations, Harvard College (then Harvard College 's major undergraduate school) Train the Protestant pastors of the Congregational Autonomy. The school's curriculum and student composition gradually became secular in the eighteenth century, and by the nineteenth century Harvard emerged as a key cultural center of the Boston elite. FollowingAmerican Civil War , Charles W. Eliot in terms rector its multiyear (from 1869 to 1909) has transformed universities and professional schools linked to it into a university research Great. Harvard was the founding member of the Association of North American Universities in 1900. James Bryant Conant led the university during the Great Depression and World War II , and after the war began. Revise curriculum and expand enrollment. Harvard University became an institution for both men and women in 1977 when it merged with Radcliffe University.



Harvard University is organized into 11 academic units - 10 undergraduate departments and the Radcliffe Institute of Advanced Studies - with campuses scattered throughout the Boston metropolitan area. The main campus is 209 acres (85 hectares) is located in Cambridge, about 3 miles (4.8 km) north west of Boston; The Business School and athletic facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are across the Charles River in Boston's Allston neighborhood; The School of Medicine, School of Dentistry, and Public Health School are located in Longwood Medical District. Among the US presidents, eight were Harvard alumni; Some 150 Nobel laureates are students, faculty, or staff members of the university. In addition, there are 62 billionaires currently living and 335 Rhodes Scholars, most of whom live in the United States, are Harvard alumni. The Library of Harvard University is also the largest university library in the United States. As of June 2013, the total amount donated by Harvard was $ 32.3 billion, more than in any academic institution in the world.

History 


Colonial

Harvard was founded in 1636 following the vote of the Massachusetts Bay Area Legislature. Originally called New College or " New Towne College ". In 1638, the university became the site of the first printer known to be in North America, carried by John of London from England . in 1639, the school was renamed Harvard College , under the name of Pastor John Harvard (1607-1638), an alumnus of the University of Cambridge in England, who donated the property to the school. John Harvard lost 779 pounds (half of his estate) and about 400 books.

In its early years, Harvard University trained many Puritan priests . The university's academic program is based on the model of British universities - many of these colonial leaders have studied at the University of Cambridge - with classic subjects but in keeping with the philosophy. religion was at that time. Although never in any of the denominations, many Harvard graduates have become pastors of churches of the Autonomous and Unified Churches throughout New England . An introductory booklet, published in 1643, describes the establishment of this university as a response to the desire to "motivate and live forever learning, otherwise fearing to leave behind items unexplainable for the church ".

Boston's then Maximized Mather held the office of president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first non-clergyman; This marked the transformation of Harvard University, which made it intellectually independent from Puritan influence.

XIX century 

Throughout the eighteenth century, the ideas of the Enlightenment on the power of reason and free will became commonplace among pastors of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which made them and their congregations in a tension Straight with the Calvinist theologians have a more traditional view. When Professor David Tappan's Theology died in 1803 and Harvard's president Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, a struggle was made in the search for a replacement. Henry Ware was appointed professor of theology in 1805, and Samuel Webber, a liberalist, was appointed chancellor two years later, marking a change from the period of his ideas. Traditionalism was at Harvard to the period of Jacobus Arminius's ideas of liberalism.

In 1846, lectures on the natural history of Louis Agassiz were warmly welcomed in New York and on the campus of Harvard University. Agassiz's approach is in a completely different way and has laid the foundations for America's "participation in the Divine Nature" and its ability to understand "intellectual realities." Agassiz's vision of science combines intuitive observation and the assumption that one can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena. This intellectual dualism is in line with the idea of ​​empirical realism rooted in two Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose work was included in the Harvard study program. that time.

Charles W. Eliot, as rector of the period 1869-1909, have been excluded from school, placement in favor of Christianity , while allowing students to take the initiative. Although Eliot was the most important person in the secularization of American higher education, he acted not for the secularization of education but for the beliefs of the Transcendentalist Unitarian ). Derived from William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson, these beliefs focus on the dignity and value of human nature, the power and ability of each person to receive the truth, and the divinity within each person. . [30]

XX century 

Throughout the twentieth century, Harvard's international reputation increased as donations rose and professors excelled in college. The number of students enrolled also increased as new graduate schools were established and the university for university student education expanded. Radcliffe University, founded in 1879 as a sister school to Harvard University, became one of the top schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the Association of North American Universities in 1900.

James Bryant Conant, who held the post of chancellor from 1933 to 1953, created a new vigor for creative academic work and ensured that it was at the forefront of research. Conant views higher education as the provider of opportunities for talented people rather than the rights of the rich, from which he changes programs to identify, attract, and support talented young people. . In 1943, he asked the faculty to give a definitive statement about what education must be like, both in high school and in college. The "Report," published in 1945, was one of the most influential statements in the history of American education in the twentieth century.

During the period 1945-1960, the enrollment policy was extended to attract students from a variety of backgrounds. This college-age college attracts middle-class students from public schools, not just to attract students from some pre-university campuses in New England; more Jewish and Catholic students were admitted, although there were still fewer black students, Hispanic or Asian students.

Female students still study privately at Radcliffe, although more and more people are taking classes at Harvard. In addition, Harvard's undergraduates are still mostly male, with about four boys attending Harvard University having a female student attending Radcliffe. Following the rise of Harvard and Radcliffe in 1977, the proportion of female college students rose steadily, reflecting the general trend of higher education in the United States. Harvard's graduate schools, which accept female students and other larger groups of students, have also become more diverse students in the post- World War II period . In 1999, Radcliffe College was formally incorporated into the Harvard Institute and became the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Studies.

XXI Century 

Drew Gilpin Faust, Rector of Radcliffe University, became Harvard's first female president in 2007. She was appointed after her predecessor, Lawrence Summers, resigned in 2006.

Academic 


Institutional structure 

Harvard University currently has the following faculties :


  • Faculty Opening reporter and Sciences ( Faculty of Arts and Sciences ), responsible for the educational activities at
  • Harvard University ( Harvard College , founded in 1636), training students in the undergraduate program.
  • Graduate School of Science and Technology ( Graduate School of Arts and Sciences , 1872).
  • The School of Engineering and Applied Sciences , established in 1950 and has many different names.
  • Faculty Continuing Education ( Harvard Division of Continuing Education ), including Summer School ( Harvard Summer School , 1871) and the Common Knowledge ( Harvard Extension School , 1910).
  • The School of Medicine ( Harvard Medical School , 1782)
  • The School of Theology ( Harvard Divinity School , 1816)
  • Law School ( Harvard Law School , 1817)
  • The Dental School ( Harvard School of Dental Medicine , 1867)
  • School of Business ( Harvard Business School , 1908)
  • The Graduate School of Design ( Harvard Graduate School of Design , 1914)
  • The Graduate School of Education ( Harvard Graduate School of Education , 1920)
  • Public Health School ( Harvard School of Public Health , 1922)
  • State School of Management John F. Kennedy ( John F. Kennedy School of Government , 1936)
  • There is also the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study .


Libraries and museums 

The Harvard University Library System, which houses the Widener Library at Harvard Yard, has over 80 individual libraries containing more than 15 million documents. [35] According to the American Library Association, this is the largest university library in the United States and one of the largest in the world. [18] The Cabot Science Library, the Lamont Library, and the Widener Library are among the library's most favorite undergraduates because of their accessibility and convenient location. In Harvard's library system there are rare books, manuscripts, and special collections; [36] The Houghton Library, the Arthurian Women's History Library and the Elizabeth Schesinger Library, and the Harvard Archives are home to some of the lesser-known rare materials. Collection of the largest East Asian language materials outsideEast Asia is hosted at the Harvard-Yenching Library.


Harvard Museum of Natural History

Harvard runs a number of museums of art, culture, and science. The Harvard Museum of Art has three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum features ancient, Asian, Islamic, and Indian art collections; Busch-Reisinger Museum displays Central and Northern Europe art; The Fogg Museum displays Western art from the Middle Ages to the present, emphasizing early Italian art, pre-Raphaelian English art., and 19th century French art. Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Minerals Museum, the Harvard Plant Museum, and the Museum of Comparative Zoo. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier, the Peabody Museum of Archeology and Anthropology specializing in the history of Western Hemisphere culture and civilization , and the Semitic Museum of Exhibit. The excavated artifacts are in the Middle East.

Personnel and student body 

Harvard's two governing body is the Board of overseers (Board) and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation ). These two bodies have the authority to appoint the head of Harvard University. The current incumbent is Drew Gilpin Faust. At present, Harvard has about 16,000 faculty and staff, [37] of which about 2,400 lecturers. [38]

Over the past six years, the total number of Harvard students ranged from 19,000 to 21,000. Harvard has 6,655 students in undergraduate programs, 3,738 students in graduate programs, and 10,722 students in graduate programs. female students 51%, 48%, and 49% of undergraduate students, graduate, and professional.

Harvard University received 27,500 applications for graduation in 2013, 2,175 received (8%), and 1,658 (76%). 95% of freshmen were among the top 10 students in high school. 88% of students graduated in 4 years, 98% graduated in 6 years. For college graduates in 2017, Harvard University received only 5.8% of applicants.

Campus 

The Harvard Yard campus in Cambridge is about 209 acres (85 hectares), 3 miles (4.8 km) west of downtown Boston, and is open to the public. extends to the surrounding Harvard Square. The Harvard Yard has administrative buildings and major libraries, and the academic areas include Sever Hall and the University Hall, the Memorial Chapel, and most of the residences for freshmen. Second, third and twelfth students lived in 12 boarding houses; Nine of these are located south of the Harvard Yard, along or near the Charles River, the three remaining residences formerly reserved for students at Radcliffe University are located in a residential area about half a mile northwest of Harvard Yard. Quadrangle ( Quadrangle ).

The Harvard Business School and many of the university's athletic facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a 358 acre (145 ha) campus in the Allston area, across from the Cambridge River. . John W. Weeks Bridge is a pedestrian bridge that crosses the Charles River, connecting the two grounds. Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, and the School of Public Health are located on a 21-acre (8.5 acre) campus in the Longwood School of Medicine and Medicine, approximately 3.3 miles (4.3 km) from downtown Boston. 5.3 km) to the southwest and approximately 3.3 miles (5.3 km) from the main campus in Cambridge.

In addition to the main campuses in Cambridge, Allston, and Longwood, Harvard also owns and operates the Arnold Arboretum, in Boston's Jamaica Plain; The Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection in Washington, DC ; Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts ; Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods, Concord, Massachusetts and the Villa I Tatti Research Center in Florence , Italy. Harvard also runs the Shanghai Harvard Center in China.

Sports

Harvard Stadium

At Harvard, there are sports facilities such as the Lavietes Pavillion, a multi-purpose arena and the home of Harvard basketball teams. The Malkin Sports Center (MAC) is both a sports facility serving students and a satellite campus for intercollegiate competitions. The MAC's five-storey building has two cardiovascular rooms, an Olympic-size swimming pool, a small swimming pool for water sports and other aisles, a mezzanine for all-day classes, indoor cycling, three-room fitness , and three golf fitness can be used to play basketball . MAC also offers personalized training and special classes. MAC is home to volleyball , fencing , and volleyballHarvard's wrestling .

The Weld Boathouse and Newell Boathouse are the practice venues for the men's and women's canoe teams. The men's rowing team also used the Red Top complex in Ledyard, Connecticut as a training camp for Harvard-Yale Regatta, the annual boat race between Harvard and Yale starting in 1852. The Hockey Bright Center is home to the team hockey at Harvard, but Murr Center for team tennis and squash ( squash ), and the health care center for the athletes all competitive sports.

By 2006 , Harvard had 41 teams competing in Table 1 of the collegiate (tertiary), topping the University Table 1 National Association of Collegiate Athletics (NCCA).

Harvard's rival Yale , all of the competitions between the two camps are fierce, culminating in the annual rugby league competition, which began in 1875 , became so famous To it one simply called "match". Although not considered the number one team as a century ago (won the Rose Bowle in 1920 ), Harvard and Yale have significantly influenced the style of the tournament.

The Harvard-Yale Regatta, the Harvard-Yale competition, is the oldest of the 23-year-olds. The Harvard-Yale Regatta Boat Race is held annually in June on the Thames River in eastern Connecticut. Harvard is one of the nation's top boating teams. In other sports, Harvard's teams are also in the top group as ice hockey (main rival Cornell ), squash, and recently Harvard won the men's and women's championship titles. NCAA. Harvard was also champion of the 2003 Inter-American Boat Race .

Former student 

Among the most famous figures in Harvard are John Hancock, John Adams , John Quincy Adams , Rutherford B. Hayes , Theodore Roosevelt , Franklin Roosevelt , 35th President of the United States, John F Kennedy , Al Gore , 43rd President of the United States George W. Bush , 44th President of the United States Barack Obama and Lady Michelle Obama , Canadian Governor David Lloyd Johnston , Canadian Prime Ministers Mackenzie King and Pierre Trudeau; Entrepreneurs and philanthropists Aga Khan IV andBill Gates ; Charity Huntington Hartford; the President of Mexico Felipe Calderón , Carlos Salinas de Gortari and Miguel de la Madrid, the President of Chile Sebastián Piñera , President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos , the president of Costa Rica, José María Figueres, President of Taiwan Ma Ying-jeou , the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Supreme Court President Israeli Aharon Barak, Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo, Prime Minister of Albania, Fan S. Noli, Secretary General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon ; philosopher Henry David Thoreau , writers Ralph Waldo Emersonand William S. Burroughs, educator Harlan Hanson, poets Wallace Stevens, TS Eliot and EE Cummings ; conductor Leonard Bernstein , violinist Yo Yo Ma, comedian Conan O'Brien; Actors: Fred Gwynne, Jack Lemmon, Natalie Portman , Mira Sorvino, Ashley Judd, Tatyana Ali, Elisabeth Shue, Rashida Jones, Scottie Thompson, Hill Harper, Matt Damon and Tommy Lee Jones ; Directors Darren Aronofsky, Mira Nair, Whit Stillman, and Terrence Malick ; architect Philip Johnson ; musicians Rivers Cuomo, Tom Morello, and Gram Parsons; composer Ryan Leslie, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, programmer Richard Stallman , football player Ryan Fitzpatrick, basketball player Jeremy Lin and civil rights leader WEB Du Bois.

In art literature 

Thanks to its central place in the American elite, Harvard has often been chosen as the backdrop for literary, dramatic, cinema as well as in other cultural fields.

Love Story , 1970 , by Erich Segal , a former Harvard alumnus and professor of classical literature at Yale , writes about the romance between a Harvard law student and his family Ryan O'Neal) with a female music student on Radcliffe for scholarship (Ali MacGraw). Both the novel and the movie are imbued with the image of Cambridge. In recent years, Harvard still rules every year for movie Love Story on the occasion to welcome new students. Other works by Erich Segal such as The Class ( 1985 ) and Doctors ( 1988) are also the main characters are Harvard students.

Harvard has also appeared in numerous American film productions such as Stealing Harvard , Legally Blonde , Gilmore Girls , Queer as Folk , The Firm , The Paper Chase , Good Will Hunting , With Honors , How High , Soul Man , 21 , and Harvard. Man . From the time when Love Story was made into a 1960s Harvard movie to The Great Debaters in 2007, Harvard does not allow filming inside buildings; Most of the footage is taken at locations similar to Harvard, such as Toronto , or universities such as UCLA , Wheaton University, or Bridgewater State University, although outdoor scenes and scenes Shot from above Harvard campus in Cambridge is still commonly used. The film Legally Blonde with scenes of the Widener Library at Harvard before but refused to use Harvard students as extras for their outfit looks "Harvard is not the same." Graduation scene in the film With Honors performed in front of UIUC 's Foellinger Auditorium .

Many of the novels are based on Harvard or have major characters associated with Harvard. Robert Langdon, the protagonist in the works The Da Vinci Code (The Da Vinci Code) and Angels and Demons by Dan Brown has been described as "a professor of art logos" (although "art logos" - symbolgoy - not the exact name of any subject). Pamela Thomas-Graham, the main character in a detective novel ( Blue Blood , Orange Crushed , and A Darker Shade of Crimson ) is an African-American Harvard professor. Among the famous novel the protagonist is the Harvard student must mention the book The Sound and the Fury (The Sound and the Fury) of William Faulkner , and Prozac Nation Elizabeth Wurtzel. Former CIA employee Wyman Ford in Tyrannosaur and Blasphemy by Douglas Preston is also Harvard alumnus.

Also borrowed scenery Harvard television series very popular of Korean Love Story in Harvard ( "Love Story in Harvard", was screened in Vietnam ), performed the scenes at the University of Southern California .

Comments on Harvard 

In 1893 , Baedeker's book called Harvard "the oldest, richest, and most famous academy in America." The first two details are still accurate; But the third detail is controversial. [55] By 2007, Harvard remained at the top of all THES-QS University Rankings , [56] and Academic Ranking of World Universities . In 2007, the US News & World Report ranked Harvard as the top "national university".

However, Harvard is also the target of many criticisms, criticized for inflation scores similar to other higher education institutions. [58] After criticism from the media, Harvard restricted the honor from 90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005, and was more selective when awarded the honorary title of "John Harvard Scholar "for the top 5% and" Harvard College Scholar "for the next 5% - with a minimum grade point average of 3.8. Carnegie Teaching Promoting Activities, The New York Times, and some students criticized Harvard for having relied on tutors for certain subjects in the bachelor program; According to them, this will adversely affect the quality of training. A New York Times article found that this condition is also common in some Ivy League universities .

The Globe publishes a Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) survey of 31 leading universities, covering issues such as faculty availability, teaching quality, quality counseling, social life at school, and community sentiment since 1994. The Harvard Crimson also made similar criticisms. According to Harvard Crimson , Harvard University president Benedict Gross has expressed interest in the COFHE issues and promised to improve the situation. Former Harvard President Larry Summer remarked, "I think the only important issue is the relationship between the faculty and the student body, we have too many graduate students involved. The classroom is so overcrowded that faculty members do not know the name of the student. Few have the opportunity to experience positive learning methods such as in the lab, classroom discussions, conversation at seminars, or work. By the group in the archives. "

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