Friday, June 15, 2018

California Institute of Technology - Pasadena, California , USA

California Institute of Technology is a university study in private Pasadena, California , USA. Caltech has six member units, focusing on the sciences and engineering . The main campus is 50 hectares , located about 18 kilometers southeast of downtown Los Angeles .


Initially founded by Amos G. Throop as a preparatory and vocational school in 1891, this school attracted early twentieth-century scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes , and Robert Andrews Millikan. . The college preparatory and vocational education system was abolished in 1910 and the school dates back to 1921. In 1934, Caltech was admitted to the Association of North American Universities . The base precursor of Jet Propulsion Laboratory of NASA latter was established in 1936 to approximately 1943; Caltech continues to operate and operate this laboratory. Caltech is one of a small group of technology institutesIn the United States, there is a tendency to focus primarily on engineering and applied sciences.

California Institute of Technology - Pasadena, California , USA

Despite its small size, 31 alumni and 32 faculty members received 32 Nobel Prizes ( Linus Pauling received two) and 66 received the National Medal of Science or the National Medal of Technology and Innovation. The United States, 112 faculty members are academicians of the National Academies. Caltech management of $ 332 million in research funding in 2011 and received 1.75 billion dollars donation in 2012. Caltech is also a longtime competitor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology . In 2012-2013, Caltech ranks first in the world in Times Higher Education 's university rankings


University Throop 

Initially, Caltech was a vocational school founded in 1891 by Amos G. Throop, a politician and businessman, at Pasadena. The school was later known as Throop University ), Polytechnic Institute Throop ( Throop Polytechnic Institute and Manual Training school), and the University of technology Throop ( Throop College of technology ), before being changed to the name California Institute of technology (Caltech) in 1920 . the school initial vocational training program was disbanded and university preparation was separated to establish Polytechnic (Polytechnic school) independence in 1907.

At a time when scientific research in the United States was just beginning, George Ellery Hale, an astronomer from the University of Chicago , founded the Mount Wilson Astronomical Observatory in 1904. Throop's management in 1907, and began immediately to develop this facility and the entire Pasadena region into an important cultural and scientific site. He helped bring James AB Scherer, a literary scholar with no expertise in the field of science but as a competent administrator and an effective fundraiser, to the post of director of the Throop in 1908. Scherer persuaded Charles W. Gates, a retired board member and businessman, to donate $ 25,000 to build Gates Research Lab, the first scientific building on campus.

World Wars  II

In 1910, Throop moved to the present site, a land donated by Arther Fleming. Theodore Roosevelt delivered a speech at the Throop Polytechnic on March 21, 1911, in which he stated, "I would like to see establishments like Throop train 100 students, 99 of whom work in industrial jobs. I would like to see these students doing what they are doing in the Panama Canal and in the great irrigation works in the country - and the rest of the students I would like to see the kind of scientific culture that will make him and his men create a generation that sometimes produces a man like your great astronomer, George Ellery Hale. "

That same year, a bill passed at the California Legislature called for the creation of a "California Institute of Technology" funded by public funds, with an initial budget of one million dollars, 10 times the budget of Throop at that time. The Board of Trustees recommended the delivery of Throop to the state, but the directors of Stanford University and the University of California , through lobbies, had overturned the bill, so Throop developed as a hospital. the only science-oriented education in southern California, including public and private, until the start of World War II when it was necessary to expand research-based education. Throop's prospects drew the physicistArthur Amos Noyes from MIT develops this facility and assists in turning it into a science and technology center.

With the outbreak of World War I , Hale founded the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific research to solve military maths. Although Hale supported the notion that the federal government provided money for scientific research, he did not follow the use of a federal bill that could help finance university research. Instead, he sought to raise a million dollars for a national research fund from private sources.

Through the National Research Council, Hale campaigned for science to play a greater role in national affairs, and at the same time let Throop play a national role in science. New grants were given to physics research, which led to the creation of the Norman Bridge Laboratory, which attracted experimental physicist Robert Andrews Millikan from the University of Chicago in 1917. During World War I , Hale, Noyes and Millikan worked together in Washington DC on the National Research Council. They then continued to collaborate on the development of Caltech.

Under the leadership of Hale, Noyes and Millikan (with the backing of a vibrant Southern California economy ), Caltech gained national fame in the 1920s. On 29 March In 1921, the board members stated that Caltech's policy was to pursue scientific studies of special importance and at the same time "continue to have carefully designed and taught courses. in the field of engineering and science based on fundamental sciences including mathematics, physics, and chemistry, expanding and enriching the curriculum.with plenty of teaching time in subjects such as English language and literature, history, and economics; and empower all those activities with strong research spirit. "

In 1923, Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. In 1925, Caltech establish geology and recruit William Bennett Munro, then the chief department of History, State Administration and Economics at the University of Harvard , to help create the faculty of humanities and science social studies at Caltech. In 1928, a biology department was established under the leadership of Thomas Hunt Morgan, the most famous American biologist at the time and the discoverer of the role of genes and chromosomes in genetics. In 1930, the Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory was established in Corona del Mar under the supervision of Professor George MacGinitie. In 1926,The aeronautics college was founded, which attracted Theodore von Kármán . Kármán later founded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and played an important role in making Caltech one of the world's missile science centers. In 1928, the Palomar Observatory began to be built.

Millikan worked as the "Chairman of the Board" (acting as director of Caltech) from 1921 to 1945. His influence was so great that sometimes Caltech was referred to as "The School of Millikan. " The day after joining Caltech, Millikan started a guest-scholar program. Scientists have accepted his invitation to short-term teaching and research at caltech including celebrities such as Paul Dirac , Erwin Schrödinger , Werner Heisenberg , Hendrik Lorentz and Niels Bohr . Albert Einstein came to Caltech for the first time in 1931 to complete the General Theorymine; He returned to Caltech later as visiting professor in 1932 and 1933.

During World War II , Caltech was one of 131 universities and colleges nationwide to participate in the Navy's V-12 Navy College Training Program, which prepared students for them. became a Navy officer. [18] The United States Navy also maintained a naval aviation training school on Caltech campus, on-site personnel to supervise ammunition and naval facilities, and an officer The task of contacting the Defense Research Commission.

Development stage postwar 

In the 1950s and 1970s, Caltech was home to Murray Gell-Mann and Richard Feynman , whose work was central to the development of the Standard Model of particle physics. Out of the community of physicists, Feynman is also known as an outstanding teacher and an interesting and unusual figure.

During the period of Lee A. DuBridge as director of Caltech (1946-1969), the number of Caltech lecturers doubled and the campus area tripled. Unlike its predecessors, DuBridge is very grateful for the federal government's grant for scientific research. The new research field in full bloom, including biochemical, science of the planet , nuclear astrophysics, and geochemistry . A 200-inch diameter telescope was built near Mount Palomar in 1948; This is the world's most powerful telescope in over 40 years.

Caltech opened its doors to female undergraduates in 1970, during Harold Brown's presidency; This number makes up 14% of the freshman population. Since then, the proportion of female students in Caltech has increased.

University students in Caltech were previously known to have little interest in politics; There was a student-held protest in January 1968 outside the NBC studio in Burbank, when rumors surfaced that NBC would stop starring in Star Trek.. In 1973, students living in the Dabney House protested a visit by the president of the United States, with a banner bearing the words "Impeach Nixon". The following week, Ross McCollum, president of the National Oil Company, wrote an open letter to students at Dabney House saying that because of the student's actions, he decided not to donate. donated one million dollars to Caltech. The Republicans are Dabney's, breaking away from the Dabney House after hearing about the rally.

21st century 

Since 2000, the Einstein Papers Project has been brought to Caltech. This project was established in 1986 to associate, preserve, translate, and publish works in the Albert Einstein heritage left behind and from other collections.

By the fall of 2008, 42% of freshmen were females, the record high in Caltech. That same year, Caltech concluded a six-year fundraising campaign. The campaign earned more than $ 1.4 billion from more than 16,000 organizations and individuals. Nearly half of that money is used to support Caltech educational programs and projects.


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